Table of Contents
D2D Communication Design and 5G
Resource Allocation for D2D Communication
Overviews and Tutorials
A. Asadi, Q. Wang, and V. Mancuso, “Survey on Device-to-Device Communication in Cellular Networks,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1801-1819, 4th Quarter 2014.
This is an extensive survey on fundamental performance issues, in terms of spectral and energy efficiency, guaranteeing quality of service (QoS), interference and power control challenges for in-band (underlay and overlay) and out-band (controlled and autonomous) D2D communication in cellular networks.
J. Liu, N. Kato, J. Ma, and N. Kadowaki, “Device-to-Device Communication in LTE-Advanced Networks: A Survey,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1923-1940, 4th Quarter 2015.
This survey summarizes various centralized and distributed interference control approaches, radio resource management, and optimization techniques for D2D communications. It also provides a detailed review of D2D prototypes and an evaluation of 3GPP activities on D2D.
P. Mach, Z. Becvar, and T. Vanek, “In-band Device-to-Device Communication in OFDMA Cellular Networks: A Survey and Challenges,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1885-1922, 4th Quarter 2015.
This survey provides a comprehensive overview of D2D communication underlaying cellular networks with a deep insight into D2D mode selection, interference and power consumption management, multicasting/broadcasting opportunities, and 3GPP standardization activities.
H. A. U. Mustafa, M. A. Imran, M. Z. Shakir, A. Imran, and R. Tafazolli, “Separation Framework: An Enabler for Cooperative and D2D Communication for Future 5G Networks,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 419-445, 1st Quarter 2016.
This survey article examines fundamental aspects of control plane and data plane separation architectures (SARC) and positions SARC as an enabler for coordinated multi-point transmission/reception (CoMP) and D2D in the context of ultra-dense networks.
M. Haus, M. Waqas, A. Y. Ding, Y. Li, S. Tarkoma, and J. Ott, “Security and Privacy in Device-to-Device (D2D) Communication: A Review,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 1054-1079, 2nd Quarter 2017.
This article provides a comprehensive survey on existing research work regarding security and privacy issues for D2D communication. It presents the security and privacy demands for D2D, attack and threat models, as well as the state-of-the-art solutions proposed with respect to these aspects of D2D communication. Furthermore, a few research directions for system and communication design have been pointed out.
S. Mumtaz and J. Rodriguez (editors), Smart Device to Smart Device Communication, Springer, 2014.
This book presents an overview of D2D communication protocol architecture as well as interference mitigation, power control, and channel measurement techniques. The application areas of D2D communications are outlined in the context of heterogeneous networks (HetNets), mobile clouds, and smart grids.
L. Song, D. Niyato, Z. Han, and E. Hossain, Wireless Device-to-Device Communications and Networks, Cambridge University Press, August 2015.
This book provides a review of various optimization and game-theoretic techniques for radio resource management and cross-layer design as well as security provisioning in D2D communications. It also provides examples of D2D applications in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), mobile social networks, and machine-to-machine (M2M) communications.
P. Li and S. Guo, Cooperative Device-to-Device Communication in Cognitive Radio Cellular Networks, Springer, 2014.
This book outlines the architecture of cooperative D2D communications, optimization and dynamic resource allocation techniques in terms of cooperative relay, and D2D application enhanced with network coding and broadcasting capabilities.
Special Issue on “Device-to-Device Communications in Cellular Networks, Part 1,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 33, no. 1, January 2015.
Special Issue on “Device-to-Device Communications in Cellular Networks, Part 2,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 34, no. 1, January 2016.
Feature Topic, “Smart-Device-to-Device Communications: Part 1,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 4, April 2014.
Feature Topic, “Smart-Device-to-Device Communications: Part 2,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 6, June 2014.
Special Issue on “Advances in Device-to-Device Communications and Networks,” IET Communications, vol. 9, no. 3, February 2015.
Special Issue on “Device-to-Device Communications with Social Awareness,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 23, no. 4, August 2016.
Standardization (3GPP Technical Reports)
3GPP TR22.803, Feasibility Study for Proximity Services (ProSe), R12, v12.2.0, June 2013.
This 3GPP Technical Report (TR) (i.e., not normative) describes the potential service requirements for User Equipments (UEs) in proximity and under constant network coverage for several use cases including commercial (i.e., discovery/social networks), network offloading, and public safety. In addition, potential service requirements for public safety UEs outside of network coverage are also provided. In total, 13 general use cases and another 13 use cases for public safety are identified. These use cases are referred to during the normative phase.
3GPP TS22.278, Section 7A, Service Requirements for the Evolved Packet System (EPS), R12, v12.7.0, December 2015.
This section of the 3GPP Technical Specification (i.e. normative) describes the service requirements for Proximity Services (ProSe) for both ProSe Discovery and ProSe Communication. These requirements drive the normative work at the system architecture and radio access network level.
3GPP TR23.703, Study on Architecture Enhancements to Support Proximity Services (ProSe), R12, v12.0.0, March 2014.
This 3GPP TR describes possible technical system architecture solutions for supporting proximity services. A complete set of solution proposals for discovery, communications, relays, identity management, and evolved packet core (EPC) support for WLAN direct communications are described.
3GPP TR23.713, Study on Extended Architecture Enhancements to Support Proximity-Based Services, R13, v13.0.0, September 2015.
This Release 13 TR provides architecture solutions to extend the Release 12 ProSe functionality to support new features such as out of network coverage discovery, one-to-one communications and UE to network relay for public safety.
3GPP TR 36.843, Study on LTE Device to Device Proximity Services – Radio Aspects, R12, v12.0.1, March 2014.
This TR documents the radio access network (RAN) level study work prior to the normative phase. Design options and solutions for synchronization, discovery, and communications are provided. Detailed evaluation assumption and parameters as well as many simulation results are described.
D2D Communication Design and 5G
K. Doppler, M. Rinne, C. Wijting, C. B. Ribeiro, and K. Hugl, “Device-to-Device Communication as an Underlay to LTE-advanced Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 42-49, December 2009.
This article promotes D2D in the context of a long term evolution (LTE)-Advanced network. It describes network-level D2D session management approaches as well as interference coordination options in a cellular network. The simulation-based feasibility analysis shows that in a highly loaded case D2D can lead to significant system throughput, particularly when the users are close to each other.
G. Fodor, E. Dahlman, G. Mildh, S. Parkvall, N. Reider, G. Miklós, and Z. Turányi, “Design Aspects of Network Assisted Device-to-Device Communications,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 170-177, March 2012.
This article describes a number of practical D2D scenarios and addresses radio access network design considerations for supporting D2D communication in an LTE system. The article further investigates the feasibility of network-assisted D2D with system simulations which provides insight on the role of power control and mode selection on the potential D2D system gains.
D. Camps-Mur, A. Garcia-Saavedra, and P. Serrano, “Device-to-Device Communications with Wi-Fi Direct: Overview and Experimentation,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 96-104, June 2013.
This article provides an overview of the novel technical features of Wi-Fi Direct, as defined by the Wi-Fi Alliance. The article describes the general architecture, the group formation procedures, the L2 service discovery procedures, and the power saving mechanisms. In addition, the article describes the results of an experimental evaluation of Wi-Fi Direct in an office environment, studying the group formation delays and the energy efficiency.
D.-Q. Feng, L. Lu, Y. Yuan-Wu, G. Y. Li, S.-Q. Li, and G. Feng, “Device-to-Device Communications in Cellular Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 49-55, April 2014.
This article identifies a few research topics and challenges for D2D communication in heterogeneous D2D and cellular networks. It addresses technical solutions from proximity device discovery, D2D session establishment, to resource allocation, data transmission, and D2D-assisted BS deployment.
M. N. Tehrani, M. Uysal, and H. Yanikomeroglu, “Device-to-Device Communication in 5G Cellular Networks: Challenges, Solutions, and Future Directions,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 86-92, May 2014
This article categorizes D2D services in two types (relaying and direct communication) and describes their use under a two-tiered network with an operator-controlled and a device-controlled link establishment. The article then describes possible pricing models and shows the revenue curves for the corresponding service alternatives and link establishment combinations.
J. Qiao, X. Shen, J. W. Mark, Q. Shen, Y. He, and L. Lei, “Enabling Device-to-Device Communications in Millimeter-Wave 5G Cellular Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 209-215, January 2015.
This article studies the use of mmWaves and narrow beamforming for D2D communications both for local (between nearby devices D2D links) and global (via device-to-base station (D2B) and base station-to-base station (B2B) links). The article surveys aspects related to network architecture, medium access control (MAC) protocol and resource sharing. It also proposes and studies a resource sharing scheme between D2D, D2B, and B2B directional radio links.
Z. Wu, V. D. Park, and J. Li, “Enabling Device to Device Broadcast for LTE Cellular Networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 58-70, January 2016.
The authors in this article propose an interference-aware coordination approach for both D2D broadcast and unicast communications under an LTE system. The proposed synchronized interference coordination multiple access (SICMA) scheme makes use of a synchronous control channel and inverse logic scheme to mitigate the impact of the half-duplex constraint on sensing. A comparison of SICMA with the IEEE 802.11 protocol through both analysis and simulation demonstrates that SICMA provides better consistent delivery of packets to nodes within the communication range.
S.-Y. Lien, C.-C. Chien, F.-M. Tseng, and T.-C. Ho, “3GPP Device-to-Device Communications for Beyond 4G Cellular Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine – Communications Standards Supplement, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 28-35, March 2016.
This article describes the features of R12 Proximity Services in LTE Release 12. The article describes the system architecture with all relevant interfaces, D2D discovery for commercial use cases and D2D communications for public safety. The article covers the entire feature from the signaling exchanges to the physical layer characteristics and procedures.
A. Al-Hourani, S. Kandeepan, and A. Jamalipour “Stochastic Geometry Study on Device-to-Device Communication as a Disaster Relief Solution,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 3005-3017, May 2016.
Using stochastic geometry, this paper analyzes the service-level performance of an LTE-A network in the context of a disaster recovery situation using multi-hop D2D relays. The analysis shows that a network with multi-hop D2D relaying can withstand quite significant damages in terms of ratio of base station failures while maintaining nominal service.
N. Giatsoglou, K. Ntontin, E. Kartsakli, A. Antonopoulos, and C. Verikoukis, “D2D-Aware Device Caching in mmWave-Cellular Networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 2025-2037, June 2017.
Targeting at a millimeter-wave (mmWave) scenario and considering ultra-wide bandwidth as well as directionality for mmWave communications, this paper proposes a D2D-aware caching policy for content sharing among D2D users. Stochastic geometry and Monte-Carlo simulations are used to model and evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, showing that higher offloading and lower content-retrieval delays have been achieved.
Resource Allocation for D2D Communication
C.-H. Yu, K. Doppler, C. B. Ribeiro, and O. Tirkkonen, ‘‘Resource Sharing Optimization for Device-to-Device Communication Underlaying Cellular Networks,’’ IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 2752-2763, August 2011.
This is a significant work on D2D communication, which considers the selection of resource sharing methods between cellular, non-orthogonal, and orthogonal modes. This paper extensively analyzes the resource allocation and power control problem over the shared resources between cellular and D2D connections with the objective of optimizing the total throughput subject to spectral efficiency restrictions and maximum power constraints.
D.-Q. Feng, L. Lu, Y. Yuan-Wu, G. Y. Li, G. Feng, and S.-Q. Li, “Device-to-Device Communications Underlaying Cellular Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 3541-3551, August 2013.
This paper addresses both resource allocation and QoS provisioning in D2D communication with a goal of maximizing the overall network throughput for both D2D users and cellular users. It proposes a three-step scheme for this purpose including admission control, power allocation, and maximum weight bipartite matching.
D. Wu, Y. Cai, R. Q. Hu, and Y. Qian, “Dynamic Distributed Resource Sharing for Mobile D2D Communications,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 5417-5429, October 2015.
This paper presents a novel framework based on the hedonic coalition formation game theory and the local piecewise linear (LPL) approach addressing the joint issue of mode selection, resource allocation, and power control for D2D communication. In the proposed framework, Nash-stable partition is formed in a distributed manner and the power control process is performed in each coalition with the objective of maximizing the achievable rate under practical constraints.
M. Hasan and E. Hossain, “Distributed Resource Allocation for Relay-Aided Device-to-Device Communication: A Message Passing Approach,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 6326-6341, November 2014.
This paper proposes a message passing-based low-complexity distributed solution for resource block and transmission power allocation in relay-assisted D2D communication. User equipments exchange messages iteratively to achieve optimal allocation using a message passing technique. The max-sum message passing strategy improves the network performance for distant D2D peers without causing significant increase in end-to-end delay.
M. Hasan and E. Hossain, “Distributed Resource Allocation for Relay-Aided Device-to-Device Communication under Channel Uncertainties: A Stable Matching Approach,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 3882-3897, October 2015.
This paper proposes a centralized solution for the resource allocation problem in relay-aided D2D communication with bounded channel uncertainties. It also presents an efficient distributed stable matching-based solution for the same problem with significantly lower computational complexity.
F. Wang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, and Z. Yang, “Social-Community-Aware Resource Allocation for D2D Communications Underlaying Cellular Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 3628-3640, May 2016.
This paper proposes a community cooperation model based on two-step coalition game where user communities cooperate with other communities to maximize their payoffs. The behavior of the cellular users in resource sharing is analyzed to maximize the satisfied D2D requests of the system using a merge-and-split approach.
L. Lei, Y. Kuang, N. Cheng, X. Shen, Z. Zhong, and C. Lin “Delay-Optimal Dynamic Mode Selection and Resource Allocation in Device-to-Device Communications—Part I: Optimal Policy,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 3474-3490, May 2016.
This paper comprehensively models the resource allocation problem for D2D communications using a constrained Markov decision process (CMDP) framework. This infinite-horizon model considers bursty traffic arrival to characterize state dynamics and end-to-end performance metrics.
W. Zhao and S. Wang, “Resource Sharing Scheme for Device-to-Device Communication Underlaying Cellular Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 4838-4848, December 2015.
This paper investigates optimal power allocation among multiple D2D pairs that share sub-channels with cellular users with negligible mutual interference. The proposed solution includes a sub-channel sharing protocol, a greedy algorithm for sub-channel allocation, and a power distribution algorithm for both D2D pairs and cellular users.
H. Tang and Z. Ding, “Mixed Mode Transmission and Resource Allocation for D2D Communication,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 162-175, January 2016.
This paper presents a novel framework to jointly optimize radio resource division and power allocation in mixed-mode D2D communication. It introduces energy-splitting variables, a two-step approach to maximize weighted D2D sum rate, and also a distributed implementation algorithm with low signaling overhead.
L. Liang, G. Y. Li, and W. Xu, “Resource Allocation for D2D-Enabled Vehicular Communications,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 3186-3197, July 2017.
This paper focuses on resource allocation schemes for D2D-enabled vehicular networks considering both vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) links and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) links. Algorithms for resource allocation which maximize overall V2I link capacity while ensuring reliability guarantee for each V2V link are investigated.
Neighbor Discovery, Service Discovery and Traffic Offloading
H. Tang, Z. Ding, and B. C. Levy, “Enabling D2D Communications through Neighbor Discovery in LTE Cellular Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 62, no. 19, pp. 5157-5170, October 2014.
This paper proposes a neighbour discovery process based on the standard LTE sounding reference signal (SRS) channel which was originally designed for eNodeB to estimate the uplink channel condition of each UE. A D2D-initiating node can discover its potential peer nodes in the proximity by listening to the SRS channel and then select a peer node.
B. Zhang, Y. Li, D. Jin, P. Hui, and Z. Han, “Social-Aware Peer Discovery for D2D Communications Underlaying Cellular Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 2426 - 2439, May 2015.
This paper proposes a social-aware peer discovery scheme by grouping potential D2D users based on their social metrics and exchanging beacon messages among group members. The proposed scheme leads to higher peer discovery ratio and lower data delivery delay.
K. W. Choi, D. T. Wiriaatmadja, and E. Hossain, “Discovering Mobile Applications in Cellular Device-to-Device Communications: Hash Function and Bloom Filter-Based Approach,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 336-349, February 2016.
This paper proposes a neighbor discovery protocol in which the D2D initiating node broadcasts a short code with mobile application information. In this way, prompt neighbor discovery is achieved by utilizing a small amount of radio resources.
S. Andreev, A. Pyattaev, K. Johnsson, O. Galinina, and Y. Koucheryavy, “Analyzing Assisted Offloading of Cellular User Sessions onto D2D Links in Unlicensed Bands,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 67-80, January 2015.
This paper studies traffic offloading by employing dual-band D2D devices with cellular licensed band for connectivity maintenance and unlicensed band for traffic offloading. Blocking probability and energy expenditure for data sessions are analyzed based on a Poisson point process (PPP).
L. Al-Kanj, H. V. Poor, and Z. Dawy, “Optimal Cellular Offloading via Device-to-Device Communication Networks with Fairness Constraints,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 4628-4643, August 2014.
This paper deals with cooperative reception where a group of cellular devices shares the contents that each individual device receives from the base station by group multicasting using D2D communication. An optimal offloading problem is formulated and polynomial time greedy algorithms are proposed.
T. Wang, Y. Sun, L. Song, and Z. Han, “Social Data Offloading in D2D-Enhanced Cellular Networks by Network Formation Games,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 7004-7015, December 2015.
This paper considers the selfish behavior of individual device for D2D content sharing and proposes a network formation game for opportunistic offloading. In such a network, each user independently decides whether to opportunistically share the content with another user or not based on a low-complexity distributed network formation algorithm.
V. Sciancalepore, D. Giustiniano, A. Banchs, and A. Hossmann-Picu, “Offloading Cellular Traffic Through Opportunistic Communications: Analysis and Optimization,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 122 - 137, January 2016.
Considering link instability due to node mobility, this paper proposes an optimal content injection scheme for opportunistic traffic offloading which minimizes the cellular network load while satisfying the application requirement. Extensive evaluation is performed based on both a heterogeneous mobility model and real-life contact traces.
Power Control and Mode Selection for D2D Communication
J. M. B. da Silva, Jr. and G. Fodor, “A Binary Power Control Scheme for D2D Communications,” IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 669-672, December 2015.
This paper analyzes a binary power control (BPC) mechanism for D2D communication underlaying a cellular network. Also, an extended BPC scheme is proposed which is compared against an iterative scheme, and the near-optimal performance of the proposed scheme is demonstrated.
H. Song, J. Y. Ryu, W. Choi, and R. Schober, “Joint Power and Rate Control for Device-to-Device Communications in Cellular Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 5750-5762, October 2015.
This paper studies an optimal joint rate and power control scheme that maximizes rate of cellular users and enables successive interference cancellation (SIC) to guarantee QoS of the D2D users. A low-complexity near-optimal scheme is also proposed which adaptively performs either transmission rate or power control.
R. Yin, C. Zhong, G. Yu, Z. Zhang, K. K. Wong, and X. Chen, “Joint Spectrum and Power Allocation for D2D Communications Underlaying Cellular Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 2182-2195, April 2016.
This paper presents a distributed resource allocation scheme based on a Stackleberg game model that considers the BS as a leader and D2D pairs as followers. The game converges to a unique Nash equilibrium solution. A centralized solution is also obtained via convex approximation method that serves as a benchmark for the distributed scheme.
N. Lee, X. Lin, J. G. Andrews, and R. W. Heath, Jr., “Power Control for D2D Underlaid Cellular Networks: Modeling, Algorithms, and Analysis,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 1-13, January 2015.
The paper presents a novel random network model for D2D communications based on stochastic geometry. It analyzes a centralized power allocation algorithm based on a feasibility set increment technique and a distributed on-off power control algorithm. The paper includes analysis of coverage probabilities of both cellular and D2D links and optimal D2D transmission probabilities.
H. ElSawy, E. Hossain, and M.-S. Alouini, “Analytical Modeling of Mode Selection and Power Control for Underlay D2D Communication in Cellular Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 4147-4161, November 2014.
This paper provides a comprehensive and tractable analytical framework to study the effect of flexible mode selection, truncated channel inversion-based power control in D2D communication. The numerical results reveal a tradeoff between average transmission power and signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) outage probability.
G. Yu, L. Xu, D. Feng, R. Yin, G. Y. Li, and Y. Jiang, “Joint Mode Selection and Resource Allocation for Device-to-Device Communications,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 3814 - 3824, November 2014.
This paper utilizes a standard optimization method for power control and the branch-and-bound method for joint mode selection and channel assignment solution for D2D communication. Low complexity heuristic algorithms are also presented based on different network loads.
L. Lei, X. Shen, M. Dohler, C. Lin, and Z. Zhong, “Queuing Models With Applications to Mode Selection in Device-to-Device Communications Underlaying Cellular Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 6697 - 6715, December 2014.
This paper presents a semi-static and dynamic routing mode selection framework and characterizes the queuing model for the route chosen for D2D communication. The performance gain is investigated under different routing modes with dynamic data arrival and finite length queuing.
R. Yin, G.-D. Yu, H.-Z. Zhang, and G. Y. Li, “Pricing-Based Interference Coordination for D2D Communications in Cellular Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 1519-1532, March 2015.
This paper considers a pricing-based joint spectrum and power allocation framework for D2D communication. Game theory is used to mitigate intra-layer interference among D2D pairs for spectrum access competition.
S.-L. Chiu, K. C.-J. Lin, G.-X. Lin, and H.-Y. Wei, “Empowering Device-to-Device Networks with Cross-Link Interference Management,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 950-963, April 2017.
This paper introduces a multi-user D2D system that utilizes multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) technique to handle the interference in concurrent D2D transmissions. It proposes a bucket-based interference elimination algorithm, which allows to find the precoders/decoders according to the elimination assignment of the D2D pairs.
J. Chen, H. Yin, L. Cottatellucci, D. Gesbert, “Feedback Mechanisms for FDD Massive MIMO with D2D-Based Limited CSI Sharing,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 5162-5175, August 2017.
Considering frequency division duplex transmission in massive MIMO wireless networks, this paper proposes a cooperative feedback scheme for channel state information (CSI) exchange via D2D communication. Numerical results demonstrate that such a scheme is more efficient to mitigate interference than the conventional CSI feedback scheme.
Medium Access Control and Performance Analysis for D2D Communication
H. Lu, Y. Wang, Y. Chen, and K. J. R. Liu, “Stable Throughput Region and Admission Control for Device-to-Device Cellular Coexisting Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 2809-2824, April 2016.
Considering both outage probability and queueing capacity, this paper proposes a cross-layer model for achieving maximal packet rate cellular links co-existing with D2D communication. Closed-form expressions for stable throughput region are obtained.
J. Huang, Y. Sun, Z. Xiong, Q. Duan, Y. Zhao, X. Cao, and W. Wang, “Modeling and Analysis on Access Control for Device-to-Device Communications in Cellular Network: A Network-Calculus-Based Approach,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 1615-1626, March 2016.
This paper develops a network calculus based model for access control in D2D enabled cellular networks. By giving the highest priority to cellular users and multi-level priority to D2D users, the worst-case performance is analyzed.
E. Zihan, K. W. Choi, and D. I. Kim, “Distributed Random Access Scheme for Collision Avoidance in Cellular Device-to-Device Communication,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 3571-3585, July 2015.
This paper proposes a random access protocol with collision avoidance for distributed D2D communication in cellular networks. Assuming a PPP for device distributions, the access probability, outage probability and success probability are analyzed.
M.-J. Shih, G.-Y. Lin, and H.-Y. Wei, “A Distributed Multi-Channel Feedbackless MAC Protocol for D2D Broadcast Communications,” IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, vol. 4, no, 1, pp. 102 – 105, January 2015.
Considering that no acknowledgement is required for broadcast messages in D2D communication, a multi-channel MAC protocol with half-duplex transmission is proposed in this paper. Channel collisions can be resolved through a few iterations of the proposed algorithm and the resolution time is dominated by the number of channels.
M. Afshang, H. S. Dhillon, and P. H. J. Chong, “Modeling and Performance Analysis of Clustered Device-to-Device Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 4957 – 4972, July 2016.
Assuming that device locations follow a Poisson cluster process, this paper analyzes the coverage availability for a typical D2D device with respect to two self-defined metrics, uniform content availability and k-closest content availability. The area spectral efficiency of the whole network is also analyzed.
H. H. Yang, J. Lee, and T. Q. S. Quek, “Heterogeneous Cellular Network with Energy Harvesting-Based D2D Communication,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 1406-1419, February 2016.
This paper studies device-based relaying for D2D communication assuming that the relay nodes are capable of energy harvesting and may compensate their energy consumption by harvested energy. A framework to analyze harvested energy and outage probability is developed.
A. H. Sakr and E. Hossain, “Cognitive and Energy Harvesting-Based D2D Communication in Cellular Networks: Stochastic Geometry Modeling and Analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 1867-1880, May 2015.
Considering that devices are capable of spectrum sensing and energy harvesting, this papers proposes two spectrum access policies for D2D communication, one random and another one prioritized. Stochastic geometry is adopted for performance evaluation of both uplink and downlink transmissions.
Security in D2D Communication
Y. Liu, L. Wang, S. A. R. Zaidi, M. Elkashlan, and T. Q. Duong, “Secure D2D Communication in Large-Scale Cognitive Cellular Networks: A Wireless Power Transfer Model,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 329-342, January 2016.
Considering that D2D transmitters are able to harvest energy, this paper introduces a power transfer model for wireless energy harvesting and an information signal model for secure information transmission. Expressions for secrecy outage probability and secrecy throughput are deduced.
M. Alam, D. Yang, J. Rodriguez, and R. A. Abd-Alhameed, “Secure Device-to-Device Communication in LTE-A,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 66-73, April 2014.
This article provides an overview of the secure architecture, threads, and requirements for D2D network access security in LTE-A, including key management, security procedures and algorithms, encryption, and integrity. Based on the three scenario types considered by 3GPP, the authors propose key distribution for network-controlled traffic offloading, network and application joint authentication for network-assisted D2D, and pre-shared key management for direct radio link security.
A. Zhang, J. Chen, R. Q. Hu, and Y. Qian, “SeDS: Secure Data Sharing Strategy for D2D Communication in LTE-Advanced Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 2659-2672, April 2016.
This paper proposes a secure data sharing protocol for D2D communication which includes a public-key based digital signature for key cryptography and symmetric encryption for data confidentiality. By keeping a record on UEs and their transmissions, the protocol can detect free-riding attacks and correspondingly improve network availability.
G. Fodor, S. Parkvall, S. Sorrentino, P. Wallentin, Q. Lu, and N. Brahmi, “Device-to-Device Communications for National Security and Public Safety,” IEEE Access, vol. 2, pp. 1510-1520, December 2014.
This paper reviews the key requirements and technology challenges for applying D2D communication to public protection and disaster relief, national security and public safety. A hybrid cellular-cluster and D2D based system is outlined with a brief description on major steps including cluster formation, cluster-head selection, synchronization, and resource management.
S. Andreev, J. Hosek, T. Olsson, K. Johnsson, A. Pyattaev, A. Ometov, E. Olshannikova, M. Gerasimenko, P. Masek, Y. Koucheryavy, and T. Mikkonen, “A Unifying Perspective on Proximity-based Cellular-assisted Mobile Social Networking,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 54, No. 4, pp. 108-116, April 2016.
This article investigates cellular-assisted D2D communication in which security and authentication of the involved D2D users are provided by a cellular service provider. A prototype real-world LTE-assisted WiFi-Direct network for D2D communication is implemented, providing multimedia streaming and social networking services.
P. Pahlevani, M. Hundebøll, M. V. Pedersen, D. Lucani, H. Charaf, F. H. P. Fitzek, H. Bagheri, and M. Katz, “Novel Concepts for Device-to-Device Communication Using Network Coding,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, No. 4, pp. 32-39, April 2014.
This article advocates applying network coding to enhance security and communication efficiency for D2D communication. The experimental results based on two implemented protocols, known as PalyNCool and CORE, show that network coding can provide higher throughput and energy efficiency, shorter delay, as well as enhanced encryption for data transmission.
D2D Content Sharing, Prototyping and Application Layer Issues
J. Jiang, S. Zhang, B. Li, and B. Li, “Maximized Cellular Traffic Offloading via Device-to-Device Content Sharing,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 82-91, January 2016.
This paper studies D2D offloading with content sharing on devices under limited storage capability constraints. The proposed approach takes into account interference and is based on a best-effort decentralized algorithm with no proactive caching on the device. The results demonstrate the potential network offloading benefits of D2D cooperative content sharing.
X. Wang, M. Chen, T. Kwon, L. Jin, and V. C. M. Leung, “Mobile Traffic Offloading by Exploiting Social Network Services and Leveraging Opportunistic Device-to-Device Sharing,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 28-36, June 2014.
This article studies mobile traffic offloading assisted by social network services (SNS) relationships. The proposed framework seeks to select a subset of users as seeds for pushing content via cellular and D2D links based not only on the user proximity but also on the users incoming and outgoing spreading impact. Actual social network and mobility traces are used in simulations to evaluate the proposed framework.
P. Sermpezis and T. Spyropoulos “Effects of Content Popularity on the Performance of Content-Centric Opportunistic Networking: An Analytical Approach and Applications,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 3354-3368, December 2016.
This paper introduces an analytical framework to study the impact of content/service popularity and availability on the performance of opportunistic networking. More specifically, the impact on the delay and success probability of a content/service access request via opportunistic communication is investigated. Simulation results based on a set of realistic mobility models/traces confirm the validity of the proposed model.
A. Antonopoulos, E. Kartsakli, and C. Verikoukis, “Game Theoretic D2D Content Dissemination in 4G Cellular Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 125-132, June 2014.
This article investigates a game theoretic framework for medium access control. Two games are proposed: the first based on a fully distributed approach and the second based on a coordinated approach where the network helps to disseminate the information. The simulation results demonstrate that both of the game theoretic approaches outperform the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF), with the coordinated approach leading in all aspects.
J. Li, R. Bhattacharyya, S. Paul, S. Shakkottai, and V. Subramanian, “Incentivizing Sharing in Realtime D2D Streaming Networks: A Mean Field Game Perspective,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 3-17, February 2017.
This paper describes an incentive framework for collaborative resource utilization exploiting the D2D interface for reducing the cost of streaming live content. The complexity of the proposed algorithm is low and experimentation using an Android test-bed developed for this purpose demonstrates that it is possible to achieve 60% cost reduction in comparison with the base-station-to-device interface while maintaining the same level of the quality of experience (QoE).
J. Kim, G. Caire, and A. F. Molisch, “Quality-Aware Streaming and Scheduling for Device-to-Device Video Delivery,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 2319 – 2331, August 2016.
This paper proposes joint scheduling and quality-aware streaming algorithms for D2D. A centralized scheduling approach is proposed which is based on a message-passing-based algorithm derived from a maximum independent set problem formulation. Also, a distributed scheduling approach derived from an improved version of FlashLinQ-based scheduling with max-weight priority across links is proposed. Both scheduling approaches depend on a quality-aware streaming algorithm which controls the quality of each data chunk subject to supporting all data in the network.
H. Khamfroush, D. E. Lucani, P. Pahlevani, and J. Barros, “ On Optimal Policies for Network-Coded Cooperation: Theory and Implementation,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 199 - 212, February 2015.
This paper investigates the optimal design of network-coded cooperative wireless communication with one source and two receivers by modeling the problem using a special case of a Markov Decision Process (MDP). The optimal MDP solution is then used to derive heuristics approaches for packet transmission then generalized to one source and multiple receivers. The proposed scheme is implemented and tested in a Raspberry Pi test-bed and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed heuristics schemes can provide significant gains.
H. Nishiyama, M. Ito, and N. Kato, “Relay-by-Smartphone: Realizing Multihop Device-to-Device Communications,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 56-65, April 2014.
This article describes a prototype multi-hop device-to-device communication network for distributed infrastructure-less disaster relief. This prototype network is built from a fusion of existing wireless communications technologies, including mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) and delay-tolerant networks (DTNs). The article describes a mode selection algorithm (between MANET and DTN) and shows the results of a field trial in Sendai City, Japan, where messages were successfully carried over a distance of over 2 km from multiple relay-by-smartphones hops.
Y. Han, H. Wu, Z. Yang, and D. Li, “A New Data Transmission Strategy in Mobile D2D Networks --- Deterministic, Greedy, or Planned Opportunistic Routing?,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 594-609, January 2017.
In this paper, routing for delay-constrained data in an opportunistic mobile D2D network is investigated. A proposed opportunistic routing centralized algorithm is developed for a single-copy multi-path transmission strategy. Inspired by the centralized approach, a close-to-optimal distributed algorithm is also developed and tested in a set of experiments carried out on Android tablets.
A. Asadi, V. Mancuso. and R. Gupta, “An SDR-based Experimental Study of Outband D2D Communications,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2016 - The 35th Annual IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, San Francisco, CA, May 2016.
This paper presents a real-life implementation of a channel-opportunistic outband D2D relay communication scheme (using WiFi in unlicensed spectrum) with QoS enforcement and investigates its performance. The paper formulates a throughput maximization problem and proposes a practical sub-optimal greedy algorithm. The proposed protocol is then implemented in an SDR-based experimental platform and tested using realistic traffic.
M. Afshang, H. S. Dhillon, and P. H. J. Chong, “Fundamentals of Cluster-Centric Content Placement in Cache-Enabled Device-to-Device Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 2511-2526, June 2016.
Modeling the locations of devices as a Poisson cluster process, this paper studies the coverage probability and the area spectral efficiency for the cluster-centric content placement strategies that focus on placing content in each cluster such that the collective performance of all the devices in that cluster is optimized.