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The subject of broadband access covers a surprisingly wide range of technologies, and spans several decades of intensive research by groups from all over the world.  This “best readings” list attempts to compile a set of references to technical papers, survey papers, and books that cover this field.  This should be useful to individuals who are just getting started in their work in broadband access, and for those who want to get a wider perspective of their field.  Of course, any such list cannot at the same time be concise and entirely complete; therefore, the authors would suggest that this list can serve as a launching point for research in the field. There is surely more out there!

The major areas covered here are digital subscriber line (DSL), passive optical network (PON), and wireless technologies.  Within the DSL topic, there are specializations on modulation and coding, dynamic spectrum management, crosstalk cancellation, multi-wire techniques, and test and measurement.  Within the PON topic, there are specializations on TDMA, TWDMA, WDM, and OFDM techniques, as well as a review of key optoelectronic devices.  The wireless topic includes WiMax, mobile, satellite, and heterogeneous networks. 

This document would not be possible without the kind assistance of many experts in the field.  Their name is attached to their contributed section.  The complete list of contributors and their affiliations is given here.  Their dedication and research spirit must be acknowledged.

Issued July 2012, Updated October 2019


Frank J Effenberger, Huawei Technologies
Dong Wei, Huawei Technologies
Junichi Kani, NTT Labs
Thomas Pfeiffer, Nokia Bell Labs
Pat Ianonne, Nokia Bell Labs

Changhee Lee, LG-Ericsson
Neda Cvijetic, NEC Labs USA
Thomas Banwell, Applied Communication Sciences
Fabrizio Granelli, University of Trento

Topic: Digital Subscriber Line

Contributor - Dong Wei

Special Issues

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special Issue on Twisted Pair Transmission, vol. 20, no. 5, Jun. 2002. 

EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal ProcessingSpecial Issue on Advanced Signal Processing for Digital Subscriber Lines, 2006.


T. Starr, M. Sorbara, J. Cioffi, and P. Silverman, DSL Advances, Prentice-Hall, 2003.

P. Golden, H. Dedieu, and K. S. Jacobsen (Ed.), Fundamentals of DSL Technology, Auerbach Publishers, 2005.

P. Golden, H. Dedieu, and K. S. Jacobsen (Ed.), Implementation and Applications of DSL Technology, Auerbach Publishers, 2007.

S. Gorsche, A. Raghavan, T. Starr, and S. Galli, Broadband Access: Wireline and Wireless - Alternatives for Internet Services, Wiley, 2014.
This book provides a good overall review of the DSL technology, as well as other techniques.

Tutorials/Survey Papers

J. J. Werner, “The HDSL Environment,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 785-800, Aug. 1991.
This paper describes the twisted pair channel environment, which is key to the design of DSL systems. Special attention is given to the most damaging impairments that are encountered in subscriber lines, such as propagation loss, linear distortion, crosstalk, bridged taps, and impulse noise.

K. S. Jacobsen, “Methods of Upstream Power Back off on Very High-Speed Digital Subscriber Lines,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 210-216, Mar. 2001.
This article describes the near-far problem in the upstream direction of VDSL, which results when the lengths of VDSL loops in a binder vary significantly. Methods of upstream power back off to mitigate the near-far problem are then described. Simulation results are presented, and the performances of the methods are discussed.

K. Song, S. Chung, G. Ginis, and J. Cioffi, “Dynamic Spectrum Management for Next-Generation DSL Systems,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 101-109, Oct. 2002.
This article presents a new paradigm for DSL system design, which takes into account the multi-user aspects of the DSL transmission environment. This article reviews two practical DSM methods: iterative water-filling, and vectored-DMT.

K. Kerpez, D. Waring, S. Galli, J. Dixon, and P. Madon, “Advanced DSL Management,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 116-123, Sep. 2003.
This article shows methods that can increase DSL bit rates and decrease DSL failure rates. Data can be collected about individual telephone lines, and an analysis engine then tailors DSL deployments to the actual individual line characteristics.

R. K. Martin, K. Vanbleu, M. Ding, G. Ysebaert, M. Milosevic, Brian L. Evans, M. Moonen, and C. R. Johnson, “Unification and Evaluation of Equalization Structures and Design Algorithms for Discrete Multi-tone Modulation Systems,”IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 3880-3894, 2005.
This paper presents a unified treatment of equalizer designs for multicarrier receivers, with an emphasis on discrete multi-tone systems. It is shown that almost all equalizer designs share a common mathematical framework based on the maximization of a product of generalized Rayleigh quotients.

R. K. Martin, K. Vanbleu, M. Ding, G. Ysebaert, M. Milosevic, Brian L. Evans, M. Moonen, and C. R. Johnson, “Implementation Complexity and Communication Performance Tradeoffs in Discrete Multi-tone Modulation Equalizers,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 3216-3230, 2006.
In this paper, the unified theoretical framework is used to analyze the achieved bit rate versus implementation complexity (in terms of multiply-and-accumulate operations) tradeoffs for a range of algorithms.

V. Oksman, H. Schenk, A. Clausen, J. Cioffi, M. Mohseni, G. Ginis, C. Nuzman,  J. Maes, M. Peeters, K. Fisher, and P. Eriksson, “The ITU-T's New G. vector Standard Proliferates 100 Mb/s DSL,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 140-148, Oct. 2010.
This article explores the recently issued ITU-T G. vector (G.993.5) that allows expanded use of 100 Mb/s DSL. A tutorial description on G. vector's crosstalk noise reduction methods leads to specific projections and measurements of expanded DSL 100 Mb/s reach.

S. Huberman, C. Leung, and T. Le-Ngoc, “Dynamic Spectrum Management (DSM) Algorithms for Multi-User xDSL,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 109-130, 2012.
This paper discusses various DSM algorithms, including Optimal Spectrum Balancing (OSB), Iterative Spectrum Balancing (ISB), Autonomous Spectrum Balancing (ASB), Iterative Water-Filling (IWF), Selective Iterative Water-filling (SIW), and Successive Convex Approximation for Low complexity (SCALE), the Difference of Convex functions Algorithm (DCA), and Distributed Spectrum Balancing (DSB). They are compared in terms of performance (achievable data rate) and computational complexity.

Relevant Papers – General

P. Odling, T. Magesacher, S. Host, P. O. Borjesson, M. Berg, and E. Areizaga, “The Fourth Generation Broadband Concept,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 62-69, Jan. 2009.
This article presents the expected next step in the evolution of broadband systems, considering the technical, infrastructural, and economical factors.

Relevant Papers – Modulation, Coding, and Equalization

G. Cherubini, E. Eleftheriou, and S. Ölçer, “Filtered multi-tone modulation for very high-speed digital subscriber lines,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1016-1028, Jun. 2002.
A filter-bank modulation technique called filtered multi-tone (FMT) and its application to data transmission for very high-speed digital subscriber line technology are described.

E. Eleftheriou and S. Ölçer, and H. Sadjadpour, “Application of Capacity-Approaching Coding Techniques to Digital Subscriber Lines,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 88-94, Apr. 2004.
This article describes a generic multilevel modulation and coding scheme based on the use of turbo-like, or LDPC codes for DSL system. It is shown that such codes provide significant gains in performance and allow an increase in data rate and/or loop reach that can be instrumental to the widespread deployment of future DSL services.

M. Ardakani, F. R. Kschischang, and W. Yu, “Near-Capacity Coding for Discrete Multitone Systems with Impulse Noise,” EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, vol. 2006, pp. 1-10, 2006.
This paper introduces a coding system based on low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and bit-interleaved coded modulation that is capable of taking advantage of the knowledge of erasures.

Relevant Papers – Dynamic Spectrum Management

W. Yu, G. Ginis, and J. Cioffi, “Distributed multiuser power control for digital subscriber lines,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1105–1115, Jun. 2002.
This paper considers the multiuser power control problem in a frequency-selective interference channel. The interference channel is modeled as a non-cooperative game, and iterative decentralized water-filling algorithm is proposed to efficiently reach the Nash equilibrium.

R. Cendrillon, W. Yu, M. Moonen, J. Verlinden, and T. Bostoen, “Optimal Multiuser Spectrum Balancing for Digital Subscriber Lines,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 922-933, May. 2006.
This paper presents a centralized algorithm for optimal spectrum balancing in DSL. The proposed centralized algorithm leads to a factor-of-four increase in data rate over the distributed DSM algorithm iterative water filling.

W. Yu and R. Lui, “Dual Methods for Non-convex Spectrum Optimization of Multicarrier Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 1310-1322, Jul. 2006.
This paper makes progress toward solving non-convex multicarrier communications optimization problems by showing that under a certain condition called the time-sharing condition; the duality gap of the optimization problem is always zero, regardless of the convexity of the objective function.

R. Cendrillon, J. Huang, M. Chiang, and M. Moonen,  “Autonomous Spectrum Balancing for Digital Subscriber Lines,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 4241-4257, Aug. 2007.
This paper develops, analyzes, and simulates a new suite of DSM algorithms for DSL interference-channel models called autonomous spectrum balancing (ASB).

Z. Q. Luo and S. Zhang, “Dynamic Spectrum Management: Complexity and Duality”, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 57-73, Feb. 2008.
This paper gives another analysis of the problem to jointly determine all users' power spectral densities so as to maximize a system-wide utility function (e.g., weighted sum-rate of all users), subject to individual power constraints. A rigorous proof is found for the result first discovered by Yu and Lui (2006) that there is a zero duality gap for the continuous (Lebesgue integral) formulation.

Relevant Papers – Crosstalk Cancellation

G. Ginis and J. Cioffi, “Vectored Transmission for Digital Subscriber Line Systems”, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1085-1104, Jun. 2002.
This paper describes the "vectored" transmission technique for digital subscriber line (DSL) systems, which utilizes user coordination at the central office or optical network unit. This method exploits the collocation of the downstream transmitters and of the upstream receivers, in order to achieve far-end crosstalk (FEXT) cancellation and perform multiuser transmission optimization.

R. Cendrillon, G. Ginis, M. Moonen, and K. Van Acker, “Partial Crosstalk Pre-compensation for Downstream VDSL,” EURASIP Signal Processing, vol. 84, pp. 2005-2019, 2004.
R. Cendrillon, M. Moonen, G. Ginis, K. Van Acker, T. Bostoen, and P. Vandaele, “Partial crosstalk cancellation for upstream VDSL,” EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, vol. 10, pp. 1433–1448, Oct. 2004.
This pair of paper investigates the concept of partial crosstalk cancellation for VDSL. This takes advantage of the fact that the majority of the detrimental effects of crosstalk are typically limited to a small subset of lines and tones.

R. Cendrillon, G. Ginis, E. Van den Bogaert, and M. Moonen, “A Near-Optimal Linear Crosstalk Canceler for Upstream VDSL,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 3136-3146, Aug. 2006.
This paper presents a simple, linear zero-forcing (ZF) crosstalk canceller. This design has a low complexity and no latency and does not suffer from error propagation.

R. Cendrillon, G. Ginis, E. Van den Bogaert, and M. Moonen, “A Near-Optimal Linear Crosstalk Precoder for Downstream VDSL ,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 860-863, May. 2007.
This letter presents a linear crosstalk pre-coder for very-high-speed digital subscriber lines (VDSL) that has a low run-time complexity. A lower bound on the data rate of the pre-coder is developed, and guarantees that the precoder achieves near-optimal performance in 99% of VDSL channels.

A. Leshem and L. Youming, “A Low Complexity Linear Precoding Technique for Next Generation VDSL Downstream Transmission Over Copper”, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 5527-5534, Nov. 2007.
This paper shows a simplified linear pre-coding scheme for far-end crosstalk (FEXT) cancellation in very high bit-rate digital subscriber line (VDSL) downstream transmission.

Relevant Papers – Multi-Wire Techniques

T. H. Yeap, D. K. Fenton, and P. D. Lefebvre, “A novel common-mode noise cancellation technique for VDSL applications”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 1325-1334, Aug. 2003.
Very-high-speed digital subscriber loop modems operate in frequency bands which coincide with many significant radio-frequency interference sources, particularly commercial AM radio. A novel wideband common-mode noise cancellation technique is presented.

A. H. Kamkar-Parsi, M. Bouchard, G. Bessens, and T. H. Yeap, “A wideband crosstalk canceller for xDSL using common-mode information,” IEEE Transactions onCommunications, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 238-242, Feb. 2005.
This letter uses the twisted-pair common-mode signal as the input of an adaptive canceller to remove some wideband crosstalk in a digital subscriber line (xDSL) differential signal.

B. Lee, J. Cioffi, S. Jagannathan, K. Seong, Y. Kim, M. Mohseni, and M. Brady, “Binder MIMO Channels,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1617-1628, Aug. 2007.
This paper introduces a multiple-input multiple-output channel model for the characterization of a binder of telephone lines. This model is based on multi-conductor transmission line theory, and uses parameters that can be obtained from electromagnetic theory or measured data.

B. Lee, J. Cioffi, S. Jagannathan, and M. Mohseni, “Gigabit DSL,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 1689-1692, Sep. 2007.
This paper applies multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission methods to multi-wire communication systems. Using channel matrices generated from a binder MIMO channel model, a performance assessment of digital subscriber line (DSL) technology based on MIMO transmission methods finds that symmetric data rates of more than 1 Gbps are achievable over four twisted pairs (category 3) for a 300 m range.

Relevant Papers – Measurements, Modeling, and Testing

S. Galli and K. Kerpez, “Single-ended loop make-up identification-part I: a method of analyzing TDR measurements,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 528-537, Apr. 2006.
In this paper, a solution to a more ambitious problem-single-ended automatic loop make-up identification, i.e., the determination of the length and the gauge of all loop sections (including bridged taps) via single-ended testing without human intervention-is proposed.

K. Kerpez and S. Galli, “Single-ended loop-makeup identification-part II: improved algorithms and performance results,”IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 538-549, Apr. 2006.
This paper expands and applies the algorithm presented in Part I of this study for identifying a loop makeup, including cable gauges, lengths, and bridged taps, via single-ended measurements based on the use of an enhanced time domain reflect meter.

Standards and Technical Reports

The following recommendations are the ITU-T publications that describe all the DSL technologies that have been standardized.

International Telecommunication Union Recommendation G.992.3 (04/2009), Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) Transceivers 2 (ADSL2).

International Telecommunication Union Recommendation G.992.5 (01/2009), Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) Transceivers – Extended Bandwidth ADSL2 (ADSL2plus).

International Telecommunication Union Recommendation G.993.2 (12/2011), Very-high-speed Digital Subscriber Line Transceivers 2 (VDSL2).

International Telecommunication Union Recommendation G.993.5 (04/2010), Self-FEXT cancellation (vectoring) for use with VDSL2 transceivers.

International Telecommunication Union Recommendation G.997.1 (04/2009), Physical Layer Management for Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Transceivers.

International Telecommunication Union Recommendation G.998.4 (06/2010), Improved impulse noise protection for DSL transceivers.

American National Standard for Telecommunications T1.417-2003, Spectrum Management for Loop Transmission Systems.

Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions Technical Report ATIS-0600007 (04/2007), Dynamic Spectrum Management.

Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions Technical Report ATIS-0600024 (04/2009), Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Crosstalk Channel Model.


Contributor - Jun-ichi Kani

J. R. Stern, J. W. Balance, D. W. Faulkner, S. Hornung, D. B. Payne, and K. Oakely, "Passive optical local networks for telephony applications and beyond," Electronics Letters, vol. 23, no. 24, pp. 1255–1256, 1987.
This is a pioneering report of TDMA-PON.  Following this, huge studies and development works were done in 1990s to realize Fiber to the Home (FTTH) based on TDMA-PON.

Ota, Y., R. G. Swartz, and V. D. Archer, S. K. Korotky, M. Banu, and A. E. Dunlop, "High-speed, burst-mode, packet-capable optical receiver and instantaneous clock recovery for optical bus operation,"  Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 325–331, 1994.
This paper is a pioneering report of high-speed burst-mode optical receiver that is the most fundamental component to realize the time-division multile access in TDMA-PON.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, I. Vandewege, and Z. X. Qiu, "The superPON demonstrator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks." IEEE Communication Magazine, vol. 38, no. 2, PP. 74-82, Feb. 2000.
This paper is a pioneering report of long-reach optical access networks with optical amplification. 

F. Effenberger, H. Ichibangase, and H. Yamashita, "Advances in broadband passive optical networking technologies." IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 118-124, 2001. 
This paper is a good overview of Broadband PON (B-PON), the first generation PON system developed and standardized by Full Service Access Network (FSAN) and ITU-T.  It describes fundamental technologies of TDMA-PON systems that are succeeded to many later TDMA-PON systems.

G. Kramer, and G. Pesavento, "Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): building a next-generation optical access network." IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 66-73, 2002.
This paper describes an early concept of Ethernet PON (E-PON), which is later standardized in IEEE 802.3 Working Group and deployed in the world wide. 

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, "IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON)," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74-80, Feb. 2002.
Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) is the most unique and important function in the logical layer in TDMA-PON to support quality and fairness of service for subscriber.  This paper reports a simple and effective algorithm of DBA for Ethernet PON that affects many later researches.

J. I. Kani, F. Bourgart, A. Cui, A. Rafel, M. Campbell, R. Davey, and S. Rodrigues, "Next-generation PON-part I: Technology roadmap and general requirements." IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 43-39, 2009.
F. Effenberger, H. Mukai, Park, Soojin, T. Pfeiffer, "Next-generation PON-part II: Candidate systems for next-generation PON," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 50-57, 2009.
F. Effenberger, H. Mukai, and J. I Kani, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, "Next-generation PON-part III: System specifications for XP-PON," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 58-64, 2009.

The above three papers summarize studies on the next-generation PON systems after Broadband PON (B-PON), Ethernet PON(E-PON) and Gigabit-capable PON (G-PON) in Full Service Access Network (FSAN) Initiative.  The first paper reports FSAN’s long-term roadmap including NG-PON1 and NG-PON2 as the first-step and the second-step evolution paths respectively, and summarizes requirements for NG-PON1.  The second and the third papers describe technology choices and a system specification of NG-PON1that is later standardized as 10Gigabit-capable PON (XG-PON) in ITU-T.

R. Kubo, J. I. Kani, H. Ujikawa, T. Sakamoto, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, H. Hadama,  "Study and Demonstration of Sleep and Adaptive Link Rate Control Mechanisms for Energy Efficient 10G-EPON," Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, pp. 716-729, vol. 2, no. 9, 2010. 
This paper reports the first demonstration of power-save control in TDMA-PON.

F. Effenberger, D. Cleary, O. Haran, G. Kramer, R.D. Li, M. Oron, and T. Pfeiffer, "An Introduction to PON Technologies [Topics in Optical Communications]," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. S17-S25, Mar. 2007.
This paper gives a view of the PON industry in the past.

S. Jain, F. Effenberger, A. Szabo, Z. Feng, A. Forcucci, W. Guo, and Y. Luo, "World's First XG-PON Field Trial," IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 524-528, Feb. 2011.
This was the first publication describing the XG-PON system, which is the system that now (2017-currently) being deployed in volume.

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, Z. Yang, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, N. Zhao, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, "Time-division-multiplexed Few-mode Passive Optical Network," Optics Express, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 1151-1158.
This was the first publication to introduce and demonstrate the idea of a PON that operates over few mode fiber, which has special loss avoidance properties.

F.J. Effenberger, "The Future of Higher Speed PONs," in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), Hangzhou, China, Oct. 26-29, 2018.
This paper provides a review of the state of the PON technical area, and provides some views on its forward evolution.


Contributor - Thomas Pfeiffer

R. P. Davey, D. B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly,A. Rafel, Sh. Appathurai,  Sheng-Hui Yang, “Long-Reach Passive Optical Networks,” Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 27, pp. 273 – 291, 2009.
A paper that describes the issues and technology regarding long-reach, which is an important step towards TWDM PONs. 

T. Koonen, T. Muys, C. Plaats, S. M. Heemstra de Groot,H.J. H. N. Kenter, lgnas G. M. M. Niemegeers, F.N.C SlothouberTOBASCO: an innovative approach for upgrading CATV fiber coax networks for broadband interactive services,”IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 76 – 81, April 1997.
This paper describes the application of multi-wavelength techniques to HFC networks.

M. Rasztovits-Wiech, A. Stadler, S. Gianordoli, K. Kloppe,  “1O / 2.5Gbps Demonstration in Extra-Large PON Prototype,” ECOC, 2007.
A demonstration of a long reach PON system.

J. Prat, V. Polo, J. A. Lazaro, F. Bonada, E. Lopez, B. Schrenk, M. Omella, F. Saliou, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, D. Leino, R. Soila, S. Spirou, L. Costa, A. Teixeira, G. M. Tosi-Beleffi, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, “Demonstration and Field Trial of a Scalable Resilient Hybrid ngPON,” ECOC, 2011.
This paper covers the aspect of providing protection in TWDM-PONs.

S. Chatzi, J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, I. Tomkos, “A Quantitative Techno-economic Comparison of Current and Next Generation Metro/Access Converged Optical Networks,”ECOC, 2010
This paper presents a business view towards large scale optical access networks.

J. Segarra, V. Sales, J. Prat,  GPON Scheduling Disciplines under Multi-Service Bursty Traffic and Long-Reach Approach,”Proc. ICTON, 2010.
This paper reviews the impact of long reach on the TDMA scheduling algorithms, and how they could be tailored to the long reach PON environment.

A. Lovric, S. Aleksic, J. A. Lazaro, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, J. Prat, V. Polo, “Power Efficiency of SARDANA and Other Long-Reach Optical Access Networks,” Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2011.
J. Prat, J. Lazaro, Ph. Chanclou, S. Cascelli, “Passive OADM Network Element for Hybrid Ring-Tree WDM/TDM-PON,” ECOC, 2009.

F. T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Shrikhande, L. G. Kazovsky,“SUCCESS: A next-generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture,”Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 22, no. 11, 2004.
This reviews a proposed architecture that merges TDM-PONs and WDM (ring-based) transport into a single flexible system. 

G. Talli, P. D. Townsend,Hybrid DWDM-TDM long reach PON for next generation optical access,”Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 24, pp. 2827-2834, 2006.
This paper introduces the concept of using dense WDM in combination with TDMA PONs to achieve a very large scale access system.

J. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, H. H. Lee, E. S. Jung, J. H. Yu, B. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. S. Koh, B. H. Sung, S. J. Kang, J. H. Kim, K. T. Jeong, and S. S. Lee,“First commercial deployment of a colorless gigabit WDM/TDM hybrid PON system using remote protocol terminator,” Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 344–351, Feb. 2010. 
This paper introduces the concept of a “Remote protocol terminator,” which is a different approach to achieving long reach PON. 

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. Naughton, A.M. Clarke, H.G. Krimmel, X. Yin, X.Z. Qiu, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, B. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. W. Smith, S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, D. Nesset, R.P. Davey and P. D. Townsend,“Demonstration of a 32 x 512 split, 100km Reach, 2 x 32 x 10Gb/s Hybrid DWDM-TDMA PON Using Tunable External Cavity Lasers in the ONUs, ”Journal of Light wave Technology,vol. 29, pp. 3705-3718, 2011.
P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. M. Clarke, A. Naughton, H.-G. Krimmel, Y. Chang, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie,  A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, R. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. W. Smith, D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, and P. D. Townsend, "A 135-km, 8192-Split, Carrier Distributed DWDM-TDMA PON with 2, x, 32, x,10 Gb/s Capacity,"Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 29 no. 4, pp. 463-474, 2011.
These two papers review the results of a EU framework project test bed of an advanced TWDM-PON system.

B. Schrenk, J.  A. Lazaro, D. Klonidis, F. Bonada, F. Saliou, V. Polo, E. T. Lopez, Q. T. Le, Ph. Chanclou, L. Costa, A. Teixeira, S. Chatzi, I. Tomkos, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, D. Leino, R. Soila, S. Spirou, G. de Valicourt, R. Brenot, Chr. Kazmierski, J. Prat,“Demonstration of a Remotely Dual-Pumped Long-Reach PON for Flexible Deployment,”Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 30, no. 7, pp, 953–961, 2012. 
A paper that describes the use of Raman amplification to achieve long reach.

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, and Y. Ma, "Time- and Wavelength-Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network (TWDM-PON) for Next-Generation PON Stage 2 (NG-PON2)," IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 587-593. Feb. 2013.
N. Cheng, J. Gao, C. Xu, B. Gao, D. Liu, L. Wang, X. Wu, X. Zhou, and H. Lin, "Flexible TWDM PON System with Pluggable Optical Transceiver Modules," Optics Express, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 2078-2091.

These two papers discuss the first demonstration of the TWDM-PON system.  The Luo paper won the most cited paper award. The Cheng paper discusses the technical issues of the optical modules.

F. Granelli, A.A. Gebremariam, M. Usman, F. Cugini, V. Stamati, M. Alitska, and P. Chatzimisios, "Software Defined and Virtualized Wireless Access in Future Wireless Networks: Scenarios and Standards," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 26-34, Jun. 2015.

P. Chanclou, A. Cui, F. Geilhardt, H. Nakamura, and D. Nesset, "Network Operator Requirements for the Next Generation of Optical Access Networks," Invited paper for IEEE Network Magazine, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 8-14, Mar./Apr. 2012.
D. Nesset, "NG-PON2 Technology and Standards," Invited paper for IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 33, no. 5, pp.1136-1143, Mar. 2015.
J. S. Wey, D. Nesset, M. Valvo, K. Grobe, H. Roberts, Y. Luo, and J. Smith, "Physical Layer Aspects of NG-PON2 Standards - Part 1: Optical Link Design," Invited for IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 33-42, Jan. 2016.
Y. Luo, H. Roberts, K. Grobe, M. Valvo, D. Nesset, K. Asaka, H. Rohde, J. Smith, J. S. Wey, and F. Effenberger, "Physical Layer Aspects of NG-PON2 Standards - Part 2: System Design and Technology Feasibility," Invited for IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 43-52, Jan. 2016.

This set of papers describe the standardization of the TWDM-PON system, giving the rationale for many of the decisions.

D. Nesset, "PON Roadmap," Invited paper for IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. A71-A76, Jan. 2017.
As the title suggests, this presents a roadmap for how PON technology may evolve in the future.

L. B. Du, X. Zhao, S. Yin, T. Zhang, A. E. T. Barratt, J. Jiang, D. Wang, J. Geng, C. DeSanti, and C. F. Lam, "Long-Reach Wavelength-Routed TWDM PON: Technology and Deployment," IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 688-697, Feb. 2019.
This paper describes the system formerly known as “SuperPON” – which employs a wavelength multiplexed trunk fiber feeding many remote TDMA-PONs.


J. Prat Next-Generation FTTH Passive Optical Networks, ISBN 978-1-4020-8469-0, Ed. Springer, 2008.

Topic: WDM-PON

Contributors - Patrick Iannone and Chang-Hee Lee

Books and Book Chapters

N. J. Frigo, A Survey of Fiber Optics in Local Access Architectures, Chapter 13 in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIA, Edited by I. P. Kaminow and T.L. Koch, Academic Press, 1997.
Although dated, this chapter gives a nice overview of PON research through the mid 90s, including early WDM PON work. (Note: more recent versions of the Optical Fiber Telecom series did not deal much with WDM PON research)

E. Harstead and P.H. van Heyningen, Optical Access Networks, Chapter 10 in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB, Edited by I. P. Kaminow and T. Li, Academic Press, 2002. 
A concise but useful discussion of WDM PON progress through the turn of the millennium.

C. Lam, Passive Optical Networks, Principles and Practice, Academic Press, 2007. 

D. J. G. Mestdagh, “Fundamentals of multi-access optical fiber networks,” Artech House, 1995.

Journal Articles

E. J. Bachus, R. P. Braun, C. Caspar, E. Grossman, H. Foisel, K. Heimes, H. Lamping, B. Strebel, and F. J. Westphal, “Ten-channel coherent optical fiber transmission,” Electronic Letter, vol. 22, no. 19, pp. 1002–1003, Sep. 1986. 
An early example of a coherent WDM PON.

T.H. Wood et al, “Bidirectional Fibre-Optical Transmission Using a Multiple-Quantum-Well (MQW) Modulator/Detector,” Electronic Letter, vol. 22, pp. 528-529, 1986.
First report of a source-less (i.e. colorless) subscriber unit.

S. S. Wagner, H. Kobrinski, T. J. Robe, H. L. Lemberg, and L.S. Smoot, “Experimental Demonstration of a Passive Optical Subscriber Loop Architecture,” Electronic Letter, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 344-346, Mar. 1988. 
A WDM PON using DFB transmitters downstream and spectrally-sliced LED transmitters upstream.

M.H. Reeve, A.R. Hunwicks, W. Zhao, S.G. Methley, L. Bickers, and S. Hornung, “LED Spectral Slicing for Single-Mode Local Loop Applications,” Electronic Letter, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 389–390, Mar. 1988. 
A WDM PON with spectrally-sliced LED transmitters both downstream and upstream.

S.S. Wagner and H.L. Lemberg, “Technology and System Issues for the WDM-Based Fiber Loop Architecture,” Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 7, pp. 1759-1768, 1989. 
Early WDM PON review paper includes technical and economic considerations, as well as one of the first discussions of hybrid WDM-TDM PON.

R.C. Menendez, S.S. Wagner, and H.L. Lemberg,  “Passive Fibre-Loop Architecture Providing Both Switched and Broadcast Transport,” Electronic Letter, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 273–274, Mar. 1990.
Early WDM PON with broadcast uses a hybrid remote node and two-fiber infrastructure.

A. M. Hill, D. B. Payne, K.J. Blyth, D. S. Forrester, A. Silvertown, J. W. Arkwright, D. W. Faulkner, and J. W. Balance, “An Experimental Broadband and Telephony Passive Optical Network,” GLOBECOM, vol. 3, pp. 1856-1860, 1990. 
Early proposal of hybrid CWDM-TDM PON with coarse wavelengths separated by 20-nm. Predates the CWDM standard.

J. S. Lee, Y. C. Chung, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Spectrum-Sliced Fiber Amplifier Light Source for Multichannel WDM Applications,” Photon. Technol. Letter, vol. 5, pp. 1458-1461, 1993. 
The relation between the optical bandwidth of a spectrally-sliced transmitter and its SNR, as described in this paper, limits the performance of certain classes of WDM PON.

G. J. Pendock and D. D. Sampson, “Transmission Performance of High Bit Rate Spectrum-Sliced WDM Systems,” Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 14, pp. 2141-2148, 1996. 
A more in depth discussion of the performance of spectrally-sliced WDM systems, focusing on the tradeoff between SNR and chromatic dispersion.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T.E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, and G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Letter, vol. 6, pp. 1365-1367, Nov. 1994. 
First AWG-based WDM PON using colorless ONTs.

P. P Iannone, K. C Reichmann, and N. J. Frigo, “Broadcast Digital Video Delivered Over WDM Passive Optical Networks,” Photon. Technol. Letter, vol. 8, pp. 930 – 932, 1996. 
An efficient method for optically broadcasting over an AWG-based WDM PON infrastructure.

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Burrus, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, and N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” Photon. Technol. Letter, vol. 8, pp. 1175–1177, Sept. 1996. 
First demonstration of the reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) as a colorless upstream transmitter.

H. D Kim, S.-G. Kang and C. H. Lee,  “A Low-Cost WDM Source with an ASE Injected Fabry-Perot Semiconductor Laser,” Photon. Technol. Letter, vol. 12, pp. 1067-1069, 2000. 
First demonstration of a colorless upstream transmitter based on broadband ASE injection of a Fabry-Perot laser, which has since been incorporated into commercial WDM PON systems.  

M. D. Feuer, et al., “Back-Reflection and Loss in Single-Fiber Loopback Networks,” Photon. Technol. Letter, vol. 12, pp. 1106-1108, 2000. 
This paper proposes the same technique as the ref above by H.D. Kim et al. (colorless upstream transmitter based on broadband ASE injection), but with a reflective-SOA (RSOA) rather than a Fabry-Perot laser.

H. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and M. Moore, “Spectral Slicing WDM PON Using Wavelength-Seeded Reflective-SOAs,” Electronic Letter, vol. 37, no. 19, pp. 1181-1182, 2001. 
Another seminal paper on RSOA-based WDM PON.

C H. Lee, W.V. Sorin, and B.Y. Kim, “Fiber to the Home Using a PON Infrastructure,” Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 24, pp. 4568-4583, 2006. 
Invited paper covering multiple PON types including TDM PON and WDM PON.

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, K. Y. Cho, S. J. Park, and Y. C. Chung, “Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON employing self-homodyne receiver with high reflection tolerance,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, San Diego CA, 2009. 
A coherent WDM PON demonstration focusing on reduced cost.

K. Y. Cho, K. Tanaka, T. Sano, S. P. Jung, J. H. Chang, Y. Takushima, Y. Horiuchi, M. Suzuki, and Y. C. Chung, “Self-Polarization Stabilization Technique for Long-Reach Coherent WDM PON,” OFC, 2010. 
Demonstrates the use of a Faraday rotator to stabilize polarization in RSOA-based coherent WDM PONs.

P. P. Iannone and K. C. Reichmann, “Optical Access Beyond 10-Gb/s PON,” European Conference on Optical Communication, (Invited talk) 2010. 
A brief survey of potential next-generation PON technologies.

Y. C. Chung, “Recent Advancement in WDM PON Technology,” European Conference on Optical Communication, (Invited talk) 2011. 
Concise text focuses on advances in RSOA-based WDM PONs. Contains a very useful set of recent experimental references.

R. D. Feldman, E. E. Harstead, S. Jiang, T. H. Wood, M. Zirngibl, “An evaluation of architectures incorporating wavelength division multiplexing for broad-band fiber access,” Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1546 - 1599, 1998. 
Invited paper covering various architectures of WDM-PON including wavelength reuse concept.

G. Maier, M. Martinelli, A. Pattavina, and E. Salvadori, “Design and cost performance of the multistage WDM-PON access networks,” Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 125 – 143, 2000. 
A multiple stage WDM-PON was proposed with AWG routing characteristics.

L. Y. Chan, C. K. Chan, D. T. K. Tong, F. Tong, and L. K. Chen, “Upstream traffic transmitter using injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode as modulator for WDM access network,” Electronics Letters, vol. 38, no. 1, pp.43-45, 2002. 
F-P LD was injection locked to externally modulate downstream signal for upstream transmission.

D. McCoy, B. C. Thomsen, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, “Filtering effects in a spectrum-sliced WDM system using SOA-based noise reduction,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Letters, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 680-682, 2004. 
Describer’s effects of receiver filtering and fiber dispersion on noise suppressed light by gain saturation of SOA.

S. J. Park, C. H. Lee, K. T. Jeong, H. Y. Park, J. G. Ahn, and K. H. Song, “Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network,” Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2582 – 2591, 2004. 
First deployment WDM-PON based on ASE seeded F-P LD for FTTH application.

K. M. Choi, J. S. Baik, and C. H. Lee,  “Broad-band light source using mutually injected Fabry-Pe’ rot laser diodes for WDM-PON,” Photon. Tech. Letter, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2592–2594, 2005.
First demonstration of broadband low noise light source with mutually injected F-P LD for alternative of ASE based broadband light source.

S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, A. Poustie, “Demonstration of a Coherent UDWDM-PON with Real-Time Processing,” Post Deadline PDPD4, OFC, 2011. 
Demonstration of 3 GHz channel spacing UDWDM-PON with coherent detection.

K. Lee, S. B. Lee, J. H. Lee, Y. G. Han, S. G. Mun, S. M. Kee, and C. H. Lee, “A self-restorable architecture for bidirectional wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network with colorless ONUs,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 4863-4868, 2007. 
Demonstration of protection in WDM-PON with 2 x N AWG and colorless transceivers.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, G. K. Chang, “Key enabling technologies for optical-wireless networks: Optical millimeter-wave generation, wavelength reuse, and architecture,” Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 3452-3471, Nov. 2007.
Demonstration of integration of wireless services in WDM-PON with optical mm wave generation.

Gubenko, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshtis, S. Mikhrin, A. Kovsh, L. West, C. Bornholdt, N. Grote, and A. Zhukov, “Error-free 10 Gbit/s transmission using individual Fabry-Perot modes of low noise quantum-dot laser,” Electronics Letter, vol. 43, no. 25, pp. 1430-1431, 2007. 
Demonstration of high speed transmission by using an individual mode of Fabry-Perot quantum dot laser. Cost and energy consumption analysis of advanced WDM-PONs in Comparison of cost and energy consumption as a result of European Project OASE.

L. Spiekman, “Active devices in passive optical networks,” OFC tutorial OM12, 2012. 
Comprehensive review of optical active devices for WDM-PON.

D.Z. Zhang, D. Zhe, M. Jiang, and J. Zhang, "High Speed WDM-PON Technology for 5G Fronthaul Network," in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), Hangzhou, China, Oct. 26-29, 2018.
This paper describes the latest version of WDM-PON.  What sets this apart from all the others is that it is driven by the immediate needs of the wireless 5G deployment, and that it is an effort led by operators rather than technologists.


Contributor - Neda Cvijetic


N. Cvijetic, “OFDM for Next-Generation Optical Access Networks,” Invited Tutorial, IEEE/OSA Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 30, no. 4, Feb. 2012.
Survey of principles, advantages, challenges, and practical requirements of OFDM-based optical access, as well as research activity in the field (2007-present).

First Works

Y. M. Lin,“Demonstration and design of high spectral efficiency 4Gb/s OFDM system in passive optical networks,” Proc. IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Communications,Anaheim, CA. Mar. 2007.
First proposal of OFDM transmission using low-cost optics for optical access, demonstrated at 4 Gb/s.

D. Qian, J. Hu, J. Yu, P. N. Ji, L. Xu, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, and T. Kusano, “Experimental demonstration of a novel OFDM-A based 10Gb/s PON architecture,” Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Communication. Conf. ECOC, Berlin, Germany, Sep. 2007.
First proposal and demonstration of 10 Gb/s OFDMA-PON and WDM-OFDMA-PON.

T. Duong, N. Genay, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, A. Pizzinat, and R. Brenot, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gbit/s upstream transmission by remote modulation of 1 GHz RSOA using Adaptively Modulated Optical OFDM for WDM-PON single fiber architecture,” Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Communications. Conf. ECOC, Brussels, Belgium, Sep. 2008.
First demonstration of adaptive per-subcarrier modulation for OFDMA-PON for a cost-efficient 10 Gb/s intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) architecture.

Real-Time Processing

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25 Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25 km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, pp. 5541–5555, Mar. 2010.
Demonstration of end-to-end real-time physical-layer transmitter and receiver-side processing with application in OFDM-PON, achieved at 11.25 Gb/s.

X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, J. Groenewald, and J. M. Tang, "First real-time experimental demonstrations of 11.25Gb/s optical OFDMA PONs with adaptive dynamic bandwidth allocation," Opt. Express, vol. 19, pp. 20557-20570, Oct. 2011.
Extension of real-time end-to-end physical-layer OFDM-based processing to include real-time dynamic bandwidth allocation in 10+Gb/s OFDMA-PON.

Advanced DSP and Optics Techniques

L. Zhang, X. Xin, B. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Secure OFDM PON based on chaos scrambling,” Photon. Technol. Letter., vol. 23, no. 14, pp. 998–1000, Jul. 2011.
Proposal and experimental confirmation of OFDM-specific DSP technique for enhancing security on the physical layer.

S. Kim, H. Kimura, and H. Hadama, “Cyclic prefix free 10-Gb/s OFDM for a DML-based long-reach optical access using joint time and frequency domain equalization algorithm,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Communication. Conf. OFC, Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011.
Novel DSP approach for reducing OFDM-related cyclic prefix overhead and exploiting cost-efficient optics in long-reach PON.

B. Charbonnier, N. Brochier, and P. Chanclou,  “Reflective polarization independent Mach–Zenhder modulator for FDMA/OFDMA PON,” Electronic Letter, vol. 46, no. 25, pp. 1682–1683, Dec. 2010.
Novel ONU architecture featuring the integration of silicon photonics based devices with OFDMA signaling to achieve cost-efficient bi-directional transmission.

High-Capacity Demonstrations

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “108 Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct detection,” Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 484–493, Feb. 2010.
Highest single-wavelength experimental PON transmission to date.

N. Cvijetic, M. Cvijetic, M. F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. K. Huang and T. Wang, “Terabit Optical Access Networks Based on WDM-OFDMA-PON,” Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 30, no. 4, Feb. 2012.
Highest capacity-distance product achieved in PON to date, with first experimental confirmation of Terabit optical access architecture.

Topic: Opto-Electronics for Access

Contributor - Tom Banwel

This reading list is based on articles which identify important system issues or novel approaches to implementing a common but challenging problem in optical access. There are many hundreds of papers pertaining to Opto-electronic components and their application. These papers are merely representative.

The papers fall into five categories:

(1) The first set of papers relate to system performance or system design with some emphasis on Opto-electronic components:

B. Meerschman, Y. C. Yi, P. Ossieur, D. Verhulst, J. Bauwelinck, X. Z. Qiu, J. Vandewege, “Burst bit-error rate calculation for GPON systems,” Proceedings Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Enschede, pp. 165-168, 2003.

S. Appathurai, D. Nesset, R. Davey, “Measurement of tolerance to non-uniform burst powers in SOA amplified GPON systems,” OFC/NFOEC, paper OWS2, 2007.


(2) The second set of papers focus on emerging PON technology with emphasis on opto-electronic components.

P. P. Iannone and K. C. Reichmann, “Optical Access Beyond 10 Gb/s PON,” ECOC, Turin, Italy, paper Tu B3, 19-23, Sep. 2010.

M. Fukuma, “Future Optoelectronic Devices for Communications and Interconnections,” presented at Stanford University, Apr. 10, 2003.


(3) The next set of papers relates to burst mode receivers. The critical issue is optimizing response to optical burst of different amplitude, which often includes a reset operation between burst. Earlier manufacturer data sheets and application notes also provide useful insight: more recent data sheets often present black box solutions.

R.G. Swartz, Y. Ota, M.J. Tarsia, and V.D. Archer, “A Burst Mode, Packet Receiver With Precision Reset And Automatic Dark Level Compensation For Optical Bus Communications,” Digest of Technical Papers, Symposium on VLSI Circuits, pp. 67-68, 1993.

Q. Le, S. Lee, Y. Oh, H.Kang, T. Yoo, “Burst-Mode Receiver for 1.25Gb/s Ethernet PON with AGC and Internally Created Reset Signal,” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, paper 26.3, 2004.

C. Su, L. Chen, and K. Wai Cheung, “Theory of Burst-Mode Receiver and Its Applications in Optical Multiaccess Networks,” Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 590-606, Apr. 1997.

M. Nakamura, Y. Imai, Yohtaro, Umeda, J. Endo, and Y. Akatsu, “1.25-Gb/s Burst-Mode Receiver ICs With Quick Response for PON Systems,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2680-2688, Dec. 2005.

C. Mélange, X. Yin, B. Baekelandt, T. De Ridder, X. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Gillis, P. Demuytere, and J. Vandewege, “Fully DC-Coupled 10Gb/s Burst-Mode PON Prototypes and Upstream Experiments with 58ns Overhead,” OFC/NFOEC, paper OWX2. 2010

Q., Sang-Gug Lee, Y. Oh, H. Kang, and T. Yoo, “A Burst-Mode Receiver for 1.25-Gb/s Ethernet PON With AGC and Internally Created Reset Signal,” IEEE Journal Of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 2379-2388, Dec. 2004.

M. Nogawa, Y. Ohtomo, S. Kimura, K. Nishimura, T.Kawamura, . Togashi, “A 10Gb/s Burst-Mode Adaptive Gain Select Limiting Amplifier in 0.13µm CMOS,” IEEE ISSCC, paper 13.9, 2006.

L. Schares, C. L. Schow, S. J. Koester, G. Dehlinger, R. John, and F. E. Doany, “A 17-Gb/s low-power optical receiver using a Ge-on-SOI photodiode with a 0.13-µm CMOS IC,” OFC, paper PDP27, 2006.

(4) The avalanche photodetector is well suited to provide gain in burst mode applications and is commonly employed in long reach or high rate PON.

K. K. Loi and M. Itzler, “Avalanche Photodetectors for 10 Gb/s Fiber Optic Receivers,” Compound Semiconductor 6(3), pp. 1-3, Apr. 2000.

M. A. Itzler, K.K. Loi, S. McCoy, N.Codd, N. Komaba, “High-performance, manufacturable avalanche photodiodes for 10 Gb/s optical receivers,” OFC, , Baltimore, MD,  paper FG5, Mar. 5–10, 2000.

O. Kwon, M. M. Hayat, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Gain–Bandwidth Product Optimization of Heterostructure Avalanche Photodiodes,” Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1896-1906, May. 2005.

H. Nie,  “High Performance, Low Cost PIN, APD Receivers in Fiber Optical Networks and FTTx Applications,” WOCC,pp. 1-38, 2005.

J. C. Campbell, “Recent Advances in Telecommunications Avalanche Photodiodes,” Journal of  Light wave Technology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 109-121, Jan. 2007.

S. R. Forrest, “Gain-Bandwidth-Limited Response in Long-Wavelength Avalanche Photodiodes,” Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. LT-2, no. 1, pp. 34-39, Feb. 1984.


(5) Burst mode laser transmitters are required to have extremely high extinction in the “disabled” state and good aging characteristics, in addition to the usual excellent data transmission properties. These papers describe interesting design principles and circuits.

Y. Martens, X. Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, K. Noldus, P. Ossieur, J. Vandewege, E. Gilon, F. Duthilleul, G. Lorusso, “Design and Implementation of a dual mode digital APC Algorithm for an APON burst-mode Laser driver,” published in  A series of Reference Books and Textbooks, Electrical and Computer Engineering Series, Oct. 2002.

M. V. Raghavendra and P. L. H. Vara Prasad,  “Driver circuit implementation for source in optical communication-a review,” Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 831-836, Jul. 2010.

J.Bauwelinck, W. Chen, D. Verhulst,  Y. Martens,P. Ossieur, X. Qiu, and J. Vandewege, “A High-Resolution Burst-Mode Laser Transmitter With Fast and Accurate Level Monitoring for 1.25 Gb/s Upstream GPONs,” IEEE Journal Of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1322-1330, Jun. 2005.

E. Sackinger, Y. Ota, Thaddeus J. Gabara, and W. C. Fischer, “A 15-mW, 155-Mb/s CMOS Burst-Mode Laser Driver with Automatic Power Control and End-of-Life Detection,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1-7, Dec. 1999.

£. Oeliwczyñski and P. Krehlik, “Novel burst mode laser driver with just-at-threshold bias,” Opto-Electronics Review 12(3), pp. 333–337, 2004.

Topic: Wireless Access

Contributor - Fabrizio Granelli

Relevant Papers - General

W. Honcharenko, J. P. Kruys, D. Y. Lee, N. J. Shah, "Broadband Wireless Access." IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 20-26, ISSN: 0163-6804, 1997. 
The paper, from 1997, constitutes a good starting point for the basics of broadband wireless access, as it provides a review of technology and architectures as well as potential markets and applications for broadband wireless access. It provides an analysis of the emergence of cellular systems and their evolution towards mobile wideband systems. Moreover, key enabling technologies are reviewed and referenced.

X. Liu, H. Zeng, N. Chand, and F. Effenberger, "Efficient Mobile Fronthaul via DSP-based Channel Aggregation," IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1556-1564, Mar. 2016.
X. Liu and F. Effenberger, "Emerging Optical Access Network Technologies for 5G Wireless," IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. B70-B79, Dec. 2006.

These two papers review various schemes that use a combination of analog and digital signal processing to carry mobile fronthaul signals over a PON.

T. Tashiro, S. Kuwano, J. Terada, T. Kawamura, N. Tanaka, S. Shigematsu, and N. Yoshimoto, "A Novel DBA Scheme for TDM-PON based Mobile Fronthaul," in Proceedings. of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar. 9-13, 2014.
This paper considers an optimized Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation scheme, that reduces the transmission latency of the network.

T. Pfeiffer, "Next Generation Mobile Fronthaul and Midhaul Architectures," IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. B38-B45, Nov. 2015.
J. Kani, J. Terada, K. Suzuki, and A. Otaka, "Solutions for Future Mobile Fronthaul and Access-Network Convergence," IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. Feb. 2017.
R. Bassoli, M. Di Renzo, and F. Granelli, "Analytical Energy-efficient Planning of 5G Cloud Radio Access Network," in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Paris, France, May 21-25, 2017.
J. S. Wey and J. Zhang, "Passive Optical Networks for 5G Transport: Technology and Standards," IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 2830-2837, Jun. 2019.
S. Zhou, X. Liu, F. Effenberger, and J. Chao, "Low-latency High-efficiency Mobile Fronthaul with TDM-PON (Mobile-PON)," IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. A20-A26, Jan. 2018.
These papers give reviews of all the many requirements of mobile fronthaul and midhaul wireless systems, and a selection of technical solutions to those requirements.

S. Althunibat, Q. Wang, and F. Granelli, "Flexible Channel Selection Mechanism for Cognitive Radio Based Last Mile Smart Grid Communications," Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 41, no. C, pp. 47-56, May 2016.

C. Ragona, F. Granelli, C. Fiandrino, D. Kliazovich, and P. Bouvry, "Energy-efficient Computation Offloading for Wearable Devices and Smartphones in Mobile Cloud Computing," in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), San Diego, CA, USA, Dec. 6-10, 2015.

Relevant Papers – WiMAX

I. Koffman, and V. Roman, "Broadband wireless access solutions based on OFDM access in IEEE 802.16." IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, no. 4, pp.96-103, ISSN: 0163-6804, Apr. 2002. 
This paper illustrates broadband wireless access as an alternative to cable modem and DSL technologies. In this context, the paper illustrates IEEE 802.16 as a broadband solution for wireless access.

D. Pareit, B. Lannoo, and I. Moerman, "The History of WiMAX: A Complete Survey of the Evolution in Certification and Standardization for IEEE 802.16 and WiMAX." IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. PP, no.99, pp. 1-29, ISSN: 1553-877X, 2011.
The paper presents a survey on all relevant activities that took place within three important organizations: the 802.16 Working Group of the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) for technology development and standardization, the WiMAX Forum for product certification and the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) for international recognition. Moreover, a WiMAX trend analysis is made.

Qiang, Ni, A. Vinel, and X. Yang, "WIRELESS BROADBAND ACCESS: WIMAX AND BEYOND - Investigation of Bandwidth Request Mechanisms under Point-to-Multipoint Mode of WiMAX Networks." IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 45, no. 5, pp.132-138, ISSN: 0163-6804, May. 2007. 
This paper focus on QoS support in WiMAX broadband wireless access technology. Major contribution is a comparison between random access and polling, in order to analyze the existing trade-offs under different traffic loads and channel noise conditions.

Relevant Papers – Mobile Broadband

A. Damnjanovic, J. Montojo, W. Yongbin, Ji. Tingfang, L.. Tao, M. Vajapeyam, Y. Taesang, S. Osok, D. Malladi, “A survey on 3GPP heterogeneous networks." IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 18, no.3, pp.10-21, ISSN: 1536-1284, Jun. 2011.
The paper discusses the current state of the art in heterogeneous deployments and focuses on 3GPP LTE air interface to describe future trends. A high-level overview of the 3GPP LTE air interface, network nodes, and spectrum allocation options is provided, along with the enabling mechanisms for heterogeneous deployments.

A. Greenspan, M. Klerer, J. Tomcik, and R. Canchi, J. Wilson, “A survey on 3GPP heterogeneous networks," IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 10-21, ISSN: 1536-1284, Jun. 2011.
This article describes the IEEE 802.20 standard that was developed to meet the unique requirements for supporting high-speed data services while at the same time supporting full user mobility. It is a standard optimized to provide (IP-based) broadband wireless (Internet) access in a mobile environment, thereby affording network operators superior performance (e.g., higher data rates, lower latency) and lower costs as compared to networks built using standards that are not optimized for that purpose.

B. Li, Y. Qin, C. Ping Low, C. Lim Gwee, "A Survey on Mobile WiMAX [Wireless Broadband Access]." IEEE Communications Magazine,vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 70 – 75, ISSN: 0163-6804 Dec. 2007.
The paper reviews Mobile WiMAX, i.e. IEEE 802.16e, with the focus on QoS provisioning and mobile WiMAX specification.

Relevant Papers – Satellite Broadband

Y. F. Hu, M. Berioli, P. Pillai, H. Cruickshank, G. Giambene, K. Kotsopoulos, W. Guo, and P. M. L. Chan, "Broadband satellite multimedia." IET Communications, vol. 4, no.13, pp. 1519 - 1531. ISSN: 1751-8628, 3 Sep. 2010.
The paper introduces the broadband satellite multimedia (BSM) architecture standardised by ETSI. It defines a satellite independent service access point (SI-SAP) interface layer that separates the satellite independent features of the upper layers from the satellite dependant features of the lower layers, and provides a mechanism to carry IP-based protocols over these satellite dependent lower layers. This enables interoperability at the IP layer between satellite systems of different physical and link layers technologies that fully comply with the SI-SAP concept. A service-based network management architecture is also presented to allow management flexibility and integration of business and operation support functions, paving the way for satellite integration into the Internet of the future.

Sacchi, T. Rossi, M, Ruggieri, and F. Granelli, "Efficient Waveform Design for High-Bit-Rate W-band Satellite Transmissions." IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 47, no.2, pp. 974 – 995, ISSN: 0018-9251, Apr. 2011. 
The paper discusses the usage of the EHF (extremely high frequency) domain, W-band (75-110 GHz), for broadband wireless access. It proposes an innovative physical (PHY) layer design for broadband satellite connections operating in W-band, tested for the radio interface of a geostationary (GEO) downlink connection.

Relevant Papers – Heterogeneous Wireless Access

D. Niyato, and E. Hossain, "WIRELESS BROADBAND ACCESS: WIMAX AND BEYOND - Integration of WiMAX and WiFi: Optimal Pricing for Bandwidth Sharing." IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 45, no.5, pp. 140 -146, ISSN: 0163-6804, May. 2007. 
The paper illustrates an integrated WiMAX/WiFi network for such an application where the licensed WiMAX spectrum is shared by the WiFi access points/routers to provide Internet connectivity to mobile WiFi users. The WiMAX backbone network and WiFi hotspots are operated by different service providers. Issues such as protocol adaptation, quality of service support, and pricing for bandwidth sharing that are related to integration of these networks are discussed.

I. F. Akyildiz, and W. Xudong, "A survey on wireless meshes networks." IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 43, no.9, pp. S23 - S30, ISSN: 0163-6804. 
The paper provides a survey on Wireless mesh networks (WMNs), which provides a detailed investigation of current state-of-the-art protocols and algorithms for WMNs. Open research issues in all protocol layers are also introduced and discussed. This paper represents a good source of information on WMNs.

D. Benyamina, A. Hafid, and M. Gendreau, "Wireless Mesh Networks Design — A Survey." IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. PP, no.99, pp. 1-12, 2012
The paper provides a survey on the design of wireless mesh networks. It represents an extremely out-to-date source of information for providers having an already deployed network or planning to deploy one.

P. A. Frangoudis, G. C. Polyzos, and V. P. Kemerlis, "Wireless community networks: an alternative approach for nomadic broadband network access." IEEE Communications Magazine, vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 206-213, ISSN: 0163-6804, May 2011.
The paper discusses the usage of a low-cost Wireless LAN infrastructure to provide ubiquitous broadband Internet access in metropolitan areas.

S. Sarkar, S. Dixit, and B. Mukherjee, "Hybrid Wireless-Optical Broadband-Access Network (WOBAN): A Review of Relevant Challenges." Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 25, no.11, pp. 3329 – 3340, ISSN: 0733-8724, Nov. 2007. 
The paper introduces the hybrid wireless-optical broadband-access network (WOBAN) as a promising architecture for future access networks. It presents architecture and a vision for the WOBAN and articulates why the combination of wireless and optical presents a compelling solution that optimizes the best of both worlds. The remainder of the paper reviews a variety of relevant research challenges: network setup, network connectivity, and fault-tolerant behavior of the WOBAN.

S. Sarkar, Y. Hong-Hsu, S. Dixit, B. Mukherjee, "Hybrid Wireless-Optical Broadband Access Network (WOBAN): Network Planning Using LaGrange a Relaxation." IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1094 – 1105, ISSN: 1063-6692, Aug. 2009.
The paper illustrates the concept of a hybrid wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN), investigating the characteristics of an analytical model for network planning, namely optimum placements of base stations (BSs) and optical network units (ONUs) in a WOBAN (called the primal model, or PM).

Relevant Standards

IEEE Draft Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks Part 16: Air Interface for Broadband Wireless Access Systems” Dec. 20, 2011.    
This standard specifies the air interface, including the medium access control layer (MAC) and physical layer (PHY), of combined fixed and mobile point-to-multipoint broadband wireless access (BWA) systems providing multiple services.