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Molecular communication (MC) is an emerging interdisciplinary field that explores the exchange of information using chemical molecules, mimicking the communication processes found in biological systems. MC research holds immense potential in emerging applications, such as medicine and biosensing, where traditional electromagnetic-based communications would be either unsafe or impractical. In particular, MC has the potential to enable new types of medical devices that can communicate with the body's cells and tissues, leading to better treatment and diagnosis of diseases. MC research also has applications in environmental monitoring, where nanosensors can communicate with each other to detect and respond to changes in the environment.

Recognizing the potential of MC for interdisciplinary applications, and given the growth of the field over the past decade, it is crucial to compile a Best-Reading list to enable students, researchers, and professionals to rapidly on-board with the fundamental concepts and be familiar with major advancements in the field. This is particularly important for students who are interested in pursuing research careers in this area. Furthermore, the papers in this Best-Reading list are excellent examples to demonstrate to those outside the communication engineering community (e.g., in physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine) how communication and engineering tools can be applied to formulate and solve research problems. This should help in the establishment and support of interdisciplinary collaborations to increase the impact of MC research.

With the above vision, this Best-Reading list includes notable textbooks, special issues, and a selection of the most significant research papers. The major topics of these papers are: 1) Modeling of Transceiver and Propagation Biophysics, 2) Performance Evaluation, Resource Management, and Parameter Estimation, and 3) Simulation, Experiments, and Testbeds. Most importantly, this Best-Reading list also covers the standardization of MC and papers from emerging applications that include drug delivery, neuroscience, DNA computing and storage, synthetic biology, and microfluidics. Most of these readings are available on IEEE Xplore; however, due to the interdisciplinary nature of MC, some seminal non-IEEE publications are also included.

Issued: November 2023


Adam Noel, University of Warwick, UK
Nan Yang, Australian National University, Australia

Yansha Deng, King’s College London, UK
Dadi Bi, King’s College London, UK

Editorial Staff

Xianbin Wang
Editor-in-Chief, ComSoc Best Readings
Western University
London, ON, Canada

Arsenia Chorti
Associate Editor-in-Chief, ComSoc Best Readings
Cergy, France

Muhammad Zeeshan Shakir
Associate Editor-in-Chief, ComSoc Best Readings
University of the West of Scotland
Paisley, Scotland, UK


H. C. Berg, Random Walks in Biology, Princeton University Press, 1993.
This short book provides an in-depth exploration of random walks in biological systems, particularly the importance of diffusion and Brownian motion in biological processes ranging from the movement of molecules to the spread of cells. This book presents the modeling of the diffusion process and also provides some important spatiotemporal solutions, including diffusion from a point source and diffusion into a sphere covered with receptors.

T. Nakano, A.W. Eckford, and T. Haraguchi, Molecular Communication, Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Written by some of the pioneers of MC engineering, this seminal textbook is an introductory guide to the field of MC. This book requires minimal background knowledge and provides a detailed introduction to the basics of biological and engineered MC, including some of the fundamental mathematical concepts, information-theoretic evaluation, considerations for practical MC system design, and a review of exciting potential applications. Overall, it is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and professionals.

B. Alberts, R. Heald, A. Johnson, D. Morgan, M. Raff, K. Roberts, P. Walter, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Garland Science, 2022.
This book is a comprehensive resource in the field of cell biology, covering topics from the molecular basis of cell structure and function to modern developments in genetics and genomics. It is an excellent reference for communication engineers who are developing a background in molecular and cell biology. This book presents detailed illustrations and diagrams that help to convey complex concepts in an accessible way and includes helpful online resources, such as animations, quizzes, and supplementary material, that enhance the learning experience. Alternatively, readers who find the level of detail daunting can consider the more accessible Essential Cell Biology by several of the same authors.

Overviews and Tutorials

I. F. Akyildiz, F. Brunetti, and C. Blázquez, “Nanonetworks: A New Communication Paradigm,” Computer Networks, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 2260–2279, August 2008.
This seminal survey introduced nanonetworks and how they could be implemented - including MC-based approaches. It starts with a discussion of the features of nanomachines and nanonetworks and proceeds to highlight an exciting and diverse array of applications. Its coverage of MC includes calcium signaling, molecular motors, and pheromonal communication, and how these could be used to construct nanonetworks. Open challenges associated with the development and deployment of nanonetworks are also discussed.

N. Farsad, H. B. Yilmaz, A. Eckford, C.-B. Chae, and W. Guo, “A Comprehensive Survey of Recent Advancements in Molecular Communication,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 1887–1919, 3rd Quarter 2016.
This seminal survey charts the progress made in the field of MC engineering before 2015. Starting with the underlying biophysical processes and biological components used in MC systems, it then presents advancements in the communication engineering of MC systems, including modulation, coding, channel modeling, and simulation. There is an overview of MC testbeds that demonstrate the feasibility of engineering MC systems and an extensive discussion of potential research directions.

A. Gohari, M. Mirmohseni, and M. Nasiri-Kenari, “Information Theory of Molecular Communication: Directions and Challenges,” IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological, and Multi-Scale Communications, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 120–142, December 2016.
This paper reviews the mathematical techniques used for information-theoretic analysis of MC with the goal of attracting the attention of more information theorists. It covers different end-to-end models of a point-to-point MC system and provides the channel capacities of some specific configurations, including concentration- and timing-based modulation at a transmitter and the ligand-receptor process at a receiver. It also discusses the problem of finding the capacity of MC networks with a cascade of channels, such as an adjacent series of cells.

V. Jamali, A. Ahmadzadeh, W. Wicke, A. Noel, and R. Schober, “Channel Modeling for Diffusive Molecular Communication: A Tutorial Review,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 107, no. 7, pp. 1256–1301, July 2019.
This paper is an extensive tutorial that covers many mathematical channel models for diffusion-based molecular communication. It presents a common mathematical framework for both deterministic and statistical models for reaction-advection-diffusion channels, either static or time-varying, and with different combinations of transmitters and receivers. It complements mathematical modeling with a review of simulation and experimental methods, and details open channel modeling problems.

M. Kuscu, E. Dinc, B. A. Bilgin, H. Ramezani, and O. B. Akan, “Transmitter and Receiver Architectures for Molecular Communications: A Survey on Physical Design with Modulation, Coding, and Detection Techniques,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 107, no. 7, pp. 1302–1341, July 2019.
This paper surveys practical transceiver design and implementation for MC systems. It covers the possible modulation, coding, and detection techniques with comprehensive design guidelines for their practical implementation using available nanomaterials or biological tools. It also presents the challenges and some potential solutions for the implementation of MC transceivers.

M. Kuran, H. B. Yilmaz, I. Demirkol, N. Farsad, and A. Goldsmith, “A Survey on Modulation Techniques in Molecular Communication via Diffusion,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 7–28, 1st Quarter 2021.
This paper reviews modulation and demodulation schemes for diffusion-based MC systems, including concentration-based, type-based, timing-based, spatial, and higher-order modulation techniques. It provides a detailed comparison of the different modulation techniques and discusses related open issues and future research directions.

D. Bi, A. Almpanis, A. Noel, Y. Deng, and R. Schober, “A Survey of Molecular Communication in Cell Biology: Establishing a New Hierarchy for Interdisciplinary Applications,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1494–1545, 3rd Quarter 2021.
This survey proposes a five-level communication hierarchy to apply MC engineering to cell biology and uses the hierarchy to map biological phenomena, corresponding research problems, and published contributions. It details case studies where the proposed hierarchy is applied to quorum sensing, neuronal signaling, and communication via DNA. Open interdisciplinary research problems are identified that apply to individual levels or span the integration of multiple levels.

Y. Liu, E. Kim, D. Motabar, Z. Zhao, D. L. Kelly, W. E. Bentley, G. F. Payne, Redox-Enabled Bio-Electronics for Information Acquisition and Transmission,” IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological, and Multi-Scale Communications, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 146–166, June 2023.
This paper reviews the recent efforts to develop redox-based bioelectronics for the acquisition of information and actuation of responses. It illustrates how electrodes can transduce electrical inputs into redox signals to achieve comparatively simple modulation-demodulation functions. It also presents how advanced biological methods, including protein engineering and synthetic biology, can use redox inputs to actuate responses at molecular and cellular levels.

Special Issues

Special Issue on Molecular, Biological, and Multiscale Communication,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 32, no. 12, December 2014.
Guest Editors:
Andrew W. Eckford, Dilip Krishnaswamy, Janet L. Paluh, Christopher Rose.

Molecular Communications for Interfacing and Modeling Living Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience, vol. 18, no. 1, January 2019.
Guest Editors:
Mauro Femminella, Eduard Alarcón, Tadashi Nakano.

Molecular Communications and Networking,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 107, no. 7, July 2019.
Guest Editors:
Ian F. Akyildiz, Massimiliano Pierobon, Sasitharan Balasubramaniam.

Molecular Communications for Diagnostics and Therapeutic Development of Infectious Diseases,” IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological, and Multi-Scale Communications, vol. 7, no. 3, September 2021.
Guest Editors:
Sasitharan Balasubramaniam, Michael Taynnan Barros, Mladen Veletić, Masamitsu Kanada, Massimiliano Pierobon, Seppo Vainio, Ilangko Balasingham.

Special Issue on Nanoscale Communication Technologies,” IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine, vol. 17, no. 3, June 2023.
Guest Editors:
Lin Lin, Adam Noel.

Topic: Modeling of Transceiver and Propagation Biophysics

M. Pierobon and I. F. Akyildiz, “Diffusion-based Noise Analysis for Molecular Communication in Nanonetworks,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 2532–2547, June 2011.
This paper is the first work to systematically investigate the diffusion-based noise sources in a passive (i.e., transparent) MC receiver, being the particle sampling noise and the particle counting noise. For each noise source, this paper proposes a physical model that mathematically expresses the processes underlying the physics of the noise source and the stochastic model that captures the noise source behavior.

A. Noel, K. C. Cheung, and R. Schober, “Improving Receiver Performance of Diffusive Molecular Communication with Enzymes,” IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 31–43, March 2014.
Inspired by the natural function of chemical neural synapses, this paper introduces the notion of modifying a communication system channel. The proposed system contains enzymes that can consume the transmitted information molecules throughout the entire propagation environment. The presence of enzymes reduces the signal strength but substantially reduces intersymbol interference, as verified by the mathematical model and particle-based simulations.

Y. Deng, A. Noel, M. Elkashlan, A. Nallanathan and K. C. Cheung, “Modeling and Simulation of Molecular Communication Systems with a Reversible Adsorption Receiver,” IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological, and Multi-Scale Communications, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 347-362, December 2015.
This paper proposes a general analytical model for a diffusion-based MC system with a reversible adsorption and desorption receiver, which includes the special cases of a fully-absorbing receiver or a partially-absorbing receiver. It evaluates the communication performance in terms of bit error probability and develops a particle-based simulation framework to capture the diffusion and reversible reaction processes.

A. Ahmadzadeh, H. Arjmandi, A. Burkovski, and R. Schober, “Comprehensive Reactive Receiver Modeling for Diffusive Molecular Communication Systems: Reversible Binding, Molecule Degradation, and Finite Number of Receptors,” IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 713–727, October 2016.
This paper investigates the reception of signaling molecules for a reversible receptor-ligand binding receiver, where the molecules can bind and unbind from the receiver surface. It first models the case where the entire receive surface is covered with receptors and derives the expected number of activated receptors. Then, it models the case where a finite number of receptors uniformly covers part of the receiver surface and uses the results from the full-coverage case to approximate the expected number of activated receptors by appropriately modifying the forward reaction rate constant.

M. Khalid, O. Amin, S. Ahmed, B. Shihada and M. -S. Alouini, “Modeling of Viral Aerosol Transmission and Detection,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 68, no. 8, pp. 4859–4873, August 2020.
This paper models airborne virus transmission as an MC problem where virus droplets propagate to a receiver that consists of an air sampler and a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. It derives an end-to-end mathematical model for both continuous sources (e.g., breathing) and jet or impulsive sources (e.g., coughing and sneezing), and formulates a detection problem to maximize the likelihood decision rule and minimize the corresponding missed detection probability.

M. Schäfer, W. Wicke, L. Brand, R. Rabenstein and R. Schober, “Transfer Function Models for Cylindrical MC Channels with Diffusion and Laminar Flow,” IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological, and Multi-Scale Communications, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 271–287, December 2021.
This paper develops a general analytical model for advection-diffusion of signaling particles in cylindrical environments. The proposed model is applicable in the flow-dominant regime where the influence of diffusion on particle transport is negligible, the dispersive regime where diffusion has a much stronger impact than flow, and most importantly the mixed regime where both effects are important and the flow exhibits a parabolic velocity profile. The simulation code is also made available.

Topic: Performance Evaluation, Resource Management, and Parameter Estimation

D. Kilinc and O. B. Akan, “Receiver Design for Molecular Communication,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 705–714, December 2013.
This paper proposes four methods for an MC receiver to recover the transmitted information distorted by both intersymbol interference and noise, including sequence detection methods based on maximum a posteriori and maximum likelihood criteria, a linear equalizer based on minimum mean-square error criterion, and a decision-feedback equalizer. The performance of the four methods is derived and evaluated in terms of bit error probability.

C. T. Chou, A Markovian Approach to the Optimal Demodulation of Diffusion-based Molecular Communication Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 3728–3743, October 2015.
This paper proposes a communication model that includes chemical reactions in the transmitter, diffusion in the transmission medium, and a ligand-receptor process in the receiver. Based on the continuous-time history of the number of ligand-receptor complexes at the receiver, it adopts a maximum a posteriori framework and uses Bayesian filtering to derive the optimal demodulator.

V. Jamali, A. Ahmadzadeh, C. Jardin, H. Sticht and R. Schober, “Channel Estimation for Diffusive Molecular Communications,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 64, no. 10, pp. 4238–4252, October 2016.
This paper presents strategies to estimate the impulse response of a diffusion-based channel where the transmitter modulates molecules according to a known sequence and then the molecules are observed at the receiver. Both Bayesian and non-Bayesian estimation approaches are used for the presence and absence of statistical channel knowledge, respectively. Estimator performance is compared with corresponding bounds on error variance and verified with Monte Carlo simulations.

Y. Fang, A. Noel, N. Yang, A. W. Eckford and R. A. Kennedy, “Convex Optimization of Distributed Cooperative Detection in Multi-receiver Molecular Communication,” IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological, and Multi-Scale Communications, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 166–182, September 2017.
This paper analyzes a diffusion-based communication system with one transmitter, a group of cooperative receivers, and one fusion center. The bit error probability is derived for voting-based detection schemes (e.g., AND-rule and OR-rule) where the receivers report over perfect or noisy channels to the fusion center. The optimal detection thresholds are determined by approximating the bit error probability as a convex problem.

G. Chang, L. Lin and H. Yan, “Adaptive Detection and ISI Mitigation for Mobile Molecular Communication,” IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 21-35, January 2018.
This paper presents adaptive detection schemes for a static transmitter and a mobile bacterium-based receiver that performs a random walk. In the proposed schemes, adaptive ISI mitigation, dynamic estimation of distance, and the corresponding impulse response reconstruction are first performed in each symbol interval. Then, concentration-based adaptive threshold detection and peak-time-based adaptive detection are proposed for signal detection. Simulation results demonstrate that ISI can be significantly reduced and the proposed adaptive detections are reliable and robust for mobile MC.

Topic: Simulation, Experiments, and Testbeds

N. Farsad, W. Guo, and A. W. Eckford, “Tabletop molecular communication: Text messages through chemical signals,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 12, December 2013, Art. no. e82935.
This paper presents the first MC testbed that encodes information into ethanol concentrations. It studies the effects of different types of flow on the overall response and demonstrates that the overall testbed system response is nonlinear. The paper also investigates the communication performance of the setup and demonstrates that reliable communication is possible by tuning the system parameters.

H. B. Yilmaz and C.-B. Chae, “Simulation study of molecular communication systems with an absorbing receiver: Modulation and ISI mitigation techniques,” Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, vol. 49, pp. 136–150, December 2014.
This paper presents the end-to-end MolecUlar CommunicatIoN simulator (MUCIN) for diffusion-based MC systems in MATLAB, which supports 1-D to 3-D environments, sending consecutive symbols, imperfect molecule reception, extendable modulation, and filtering modules. The paper uses the simulator to investigate the performance of an inter-symbol interference mitigation strategy.

M. Kuscu, A. Kiraz, and O. B. Akan, “Fluorescent molecules as transceiver nanoantennas: The first practical and high-rate information transfer over a nanoscale communication channel based on FRET,” Scientific Reports, vol. 5, no. 1, 7831, January 2015.
This paper reports the first information transfer through exchanging energy levels between a donor molecule (i.e., acting as a transmitter) and an acceptor molecule (i.e., acting as a receiver) via the Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) phenomenon. A bulk of donor-acceptor pairs intrinsically establish a multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) nano communication system. It evaluates the performance of this MIMO system in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and bit error rate.

A. Noel, K. C. Cheung, R. Schober, D. Makrakis, and A. Hafid, “Simulating with AcCoRD: Actor-based communication via reaction–diffusion,” Nano Communication Networks, vol. 11, pp. 44–75, March 2017.
This paper presents AcCoRD (Actor-based communication via reaction-diffusion), a sandbox molecular communication simulator that constructs and simulates advection-diffusion systems with any number of transmitters, receivers, and chemical reactions. Environments can include regions that are modeled microscopically (i.e., individual molecules are tracked) and regions that are modeled mesoscopically (via the spatial Gillespie algorithm). The paper presents the implemented algorithms and verifies its accuracy for a series of known reaction-diffusion environments.

L. Grebenstein, J. Kirchner, R.S. Peixoto, W. Zimmermann, W. Wicke, A. Ahmadzadeh, V. Jamali, G. Fischer , R. Weigel, A. Burkovski, and R. Schober, “Biological optical-to-chemical signal conversion interface: A small-scale modulator for molecular communications,” IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 31–42, January 2019.
This paper proposes a bacteria-based signal conversion interface that transduces an optical signal to a chemical signal that can change the pH of the environment. It also establishes an analytical parametric model for the interface and derives two detectors to recover the transmitted data of the optical signal from the measured pH changes.

L. Fichera, G. Li-Destri, and N. Tuccitto, “Graphene Quantum Dots Enable Digital Communication through Biological Fluids,” Carbon, vol. 182, pp. 847–855, September 2021.
This paper realizes molecule shift keying modulation and demodulation by exploiting the fluorescence properties of different graphene quantum dots. It implements a prototype system to transmit infection-induced temperature variation information in a biological fluid to a receiver that releases an antibiotic drug.

M. Kuscu, H. Ramezani, E. Dinc, S. Akhavan, and O. B. Akan, “Fabrication and Microfluidic Analysis of Graphene-based Molecular Communication Receiver for Internet of Nano Things (IoNT),” Scientific Reports, vol. 11, no. 1, 19600, December 2021.
This paper reports the first practical implementation of a nanoscale MC receiver that is based on graphene field-effect transistor biosensors. With information encoded into the concentration of single-stranded DNA molecules, the paper performs MC detection performance analysis and provides insights into the intersymbol interference problem.

S. Bhattacharjee, M. Damrath, L. Stratmann, P. A. Hoeher and F. Dressler, Digital Communication Techniques in Macroscopic Air-Based Molecular Communication,” IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological, and Multi-Scale Communications, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 276-291, December 2022.
This paper reports an air-based macroscopic MC testbed that uses fluorescent dyes as the information carrier. It derives an analytical end-to-end model of the testbed that captures the correlative behavior between the consecutive noise samples in a measured signal. This paper implements various modulation schemes and compares their achievable data rates, BERs, and resource requirements. It also performs a comparison of the performance of various detection algorithms with equalization techniques.

V. Walter, D. Bi, A. Salehi-Reyhani and Y. Deng, “Real-time Signal Processing via Chemical Reactions for a Microfluidic Molecular Communication System,” Nature Communications, vol. 14, 7188, November 2023.
This paper presents a liquid-based microfluidic molecular communication platform for performing chemical concentration signal processing and digital signal transmission over distances. By specifically designing chemical reactions and microfluidic geometry, the transmitter of the platform is capable of shaping the emitted signals, and the receiver is able to threshold, amplify, and detect the chemical signals after propagation. By encoding bit information into the concentration of sodium hydroxide, the proposed platform can achieve molecular signal modulation and demodulation functionalities, and reliably transmit text messages over long distances.

Topic: Standardization and Emerging Applications

IEEE Recommended Practice for Nanoscale and Molecular Communication Framework,” in IEEE Std 1906.1-2015, pp.1–64, January 2016.
This standard defines nanoscale communication from the perspective of engineered system design. It provides a general framework for nanoscale communication, including performance metrics, use cases, and a simple reference model implemented in an ns-3 simulation environment to compare wireless and molecular transmission.

Drug Delivery

Y. Chahibi, M. Pierobon, S. O. Song, and I. F. Akyildiz, “A Molecular Communication System Model for Particulate Drug Delivery Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 3468–3483, December 2013.
This paper applies MC to analyze a drug delivery system. In particular, it proposes modeling of the cardiovascular network to enable the calculation of the blood velocity profile at every location of the cardiovascular system and derives an analytical expression of the drug delivery rate at a targeted site.

M. Veletić, M. T. Barros, H. Arjmandi, S. Balasubramaniam and I. Balasingham, “Modeling of Modulated Exosome Release from Differentiated Induced Neural Stem Cells for Targeted Drug Delivery,” IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 357-367, July 2020.
This paper proposes a novel implantable and externally-controllable stem-cell-based platform for the treatment of Glioblastoma brain cancer. It provides a mathematical model to enable the calculation of therapeutic exosomal release rate that is modulated by cell stimulation patterns applied from external wearable devices.


N. A. Abbasi, D. Lafci, and O. B. Akan, “Controlled Information Transfer through an In Vivo Nervous System,” Scientific Reports, vol. 8, no. 2, 2298, February 2018.
This paper demonstrates the first controlled information transfer through an in vivo nervous system by modulating digital data from macro-scale devices onto the nervous system of common earthworms. It derives the nervous system response to stimulations, optimizes the experimental parameters (e.g., frequency and amplitude of electrical stimuli and modulation schemes), and conducts successful information transmissions.

O. B. Akan, H. Ramezani, M. Civas, O. Cetinkaya, B. A. Bilgin and N. A. Abbasi, “Information and Communication Theoretical Understanding and Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries: State-of-the-art and Research Challenges,” IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering, vol. 16, pp. 332-347, January 2023.
This paper reviews the major treatment techniques for spinal cord injuries (SCI) and proposes two promising treatment solutions based on information and communication technology (ICT). In particular, the first solution interfaces external machines with the brain and spinal cord such that brain signals are directly routed to the limbs for movement, while the second solution directly replaces injured or dead biological neurons with self-organizing artificial neurons. Some future directions in SCI treatment as well as other potential applications for SCI treatment techniques are also covered.

DNA Computing and Storage

D. Carmean, L. Ceze, G. Seelig, K. Stewart, K. Strauss and M. Willsey, “DNA Data Storage and Hybrid Molecular–Electronic Computing,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 63-72, January 2019.
This paper explores the potential of using DNA technology as an alternative substrate for computing and storage. It presents a hybrid molecular-electronic architecture that combines the strengths of both domains and discusses challenges and tradeoffs pertaining to physical constraints, communication, storage, and computation. An example of the hybrid molecular-electronic architecture is proposed for image similarity search, and the corresponding model is also provided to demonstrate its feasibility.

Synthetic Biology

A. Marcone, M. Pierobon, and M. Magarini, “Parity-check Coding Based on Genetic Circuits for Engineered Molecular Communication between Biological Cells,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 6221–6236, December 2018.
This paper presents the design and simulation of encoding in a biological cell, which enables the detection of errors during MC transmission. A biologically-modulated single parity-check encoder is considered with its corresponding analog decoder. The modulation-demodulation and encoding-decoding functionalities are realized entirely in the biochemical domain using the activation and repression of gene expression and reactions of molecular species.

O. F. Sezgen, O. Altan, A. Bilir, M. G. Durmaz, N. Haciosmanoglu, B. Camli, Z. C. C. Ozdil, A. E. Pusane, A. D. Yalcinkaya, U. O. S. Seker, T. Tugcu, and S. Dumanli, “A Multiscale Communications System Based on Engineered Bacteria,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 62-67, May 2021.
This article proposes two different mechanisms to sense the output of an MC system and transmit the information to an on-body reader, which could provide a multi-scale interface between microscale MC systems and macroscale terminals. Each mechanism involves different genetically-engineered bacteria and specific antenna designs. It provides an experimental setup for each mechanism to demonstrate the  proposed concept.


E. De Leo, L. Donvito, L. Galluccio, A. Lombardo, G. Morabito and L. M. Zanoli, “Communications and Switching in Microfluidic Systems: Pure Hydrodynamic Control for Networking Labs-on-a-chip,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 4663-4677, November 2013.
This paper introduces droplet-based microfluidic systems for communication, when in this case the information is encoded into the distance between consecutive droplets. It evaluates the channel capacity and characterizes the noise statistics. More generally, it proposes the hydrodynamic controlled microfluidic network paradigm and provides simulation and experimental results to show how it can achieve switching behavior.

D. Bi, Y. Deng, M. Pierobon and A. Nallanathan, “Chemical Reactions-based Microfluidic Transmitter and Receiver Design for Molecular Communication,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 5590-5605, September 2020.
This paper proposes a chemical-reaction-based microfluidic transmitter and receiver design to realize binary concentration shift keying modulation and demodulation functionalities. It also provides a mathematical framework to describe the spatiotemporal dynamics of molecular species in microfluidic channels, which reveals the dependence of modulated and demodulated signals on design parameters and enables system optimization.