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Best Readings is a collection of Journal/Magazine Special Issues, books, articles, and papers on a featured topic. This Best Readings is on Multi-Tier Cellular.

Issued May 2013


Jeff Andrews

Andrea Conti

Sherman Shen

Special Issues

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special Issue on “Femtocells: Past, Present, and Future,” vol. 30, no. 3, April 2012.

IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, Special Issue on “Heterogeneous Cellular Networks: From Theory to Practice,” vol.18, no.3, June 2012.

IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, Special Issue on “Next Generation Cognitive Cellular Networks,” to appear, April 2013.

Overview Papers & Surveys

J. G. Andrews, "The Seven Ways HetNets are a Paradigm Shift", IEEE Communications Magazine,March 2013. 
This paper explains seven major ways that small-cell networks are different than traditional tower-based cellular networks, and associated technical and research challenges, and recommendations.

V. Chandrasekhar, J. Andrews, and A. Gatherer, “Femtocell Networks: A Survey,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 59–67, 2008.
This article overviews the technical and business arguments for femtocells and describes the state of the art on each front.

H. Claussen, L. T. W. Ho, and L. G. Samuel, “An Overview of the Femtocell Concept,” Bell Labs Technical Journal, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 221–245, May 2008.
In this paper, a user-deployed femtocell solution based on the base station router (BSR) flat Internet Protocol (IP) cellular architecture is presented.

A. Damnjanovic, J. Montojo, Y. Wei, T. Ji, T. Luo, M. Vajapeyam, T. Yoo, O. Song, and D. Malladi, “A Survey on 3GPP Heterogeneous Networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 10–21, 2011.
This paper surveys current state-of-the-art in heterogeneous deployments and focus on 3GPP LTE air interface to describe future trends.

A. Ghosh, N. Mangalvedhe, R. Ratasuk, B. Mondal, M. Cudak, E. Visotsky, T. A. Thomas, J. G. Andrews, P. Xia, H. S. Jo, H. S. Dhillon, and T. D. Novlan, "Heterogeneous Cellular Networks: From Theory to Practice", IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 50, no. 6, June 2012.
This article discusses new theoretical models for understanding the heterogeneous cellular networks of tomorrow, and the practical constraints and challenges that operators must tackle in order for these networks to reach their potential.

R. Kim, J. S. Kwak, and K. Etemad, “WiMAX Femtocell: Requirements, Challenges, and Solutions,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 84 –91, Sep. 2009.
This article presents an overview of WiMAX femtocell requirements, deployment models, and solutions in the near and long terms.

Z. Hasan, H. Boostanimehr, and V. K. Bhargava, “Green Cellular Networks: A Survey, Some Research Issues and Challenges,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 13, pp. 524–540, 2011.
This paper provides a comprehensive survey on techniques to obtain energy savings in base stations, by discussing how heterogeneous network deployment based on micro, pico and femtocells can be used to achieve this goal.

A. Khandekar, N. Bhushan, J. Tingfang, and V. Vanghi, “LTE-Advanced: Heterogeneous Networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Conference (EW), European, 2010, pp. 978–982.
This paper discusses the need for an alternative deployment model or topology using heterogeneous networks for LTE-Advanced.

N.M. Mosharaf Kabir Chowdhury, R. Boutaba, Network virtualization: State of the Art and Research challenges, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 20–26, July 2009.
This article investigates the past and the state of the art in network virtualization along with the future challenges that must be addressed to realize a viable network virtualization environment.

A. Damnjanovic, J. Montojo, Y. Wei, T. Ji, T. Luo, M. Vajapeyam, T. Yoo, O. Song, D. Malladi, A Survey on 3GPP Heterogeneous Networks, IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 10–21, June. 2011. 
This article discusses the need for an alternative strategy, where low power nodes are overlaid within a macro network, creating what is referred to as a heterogeneous network.


T. Q. S. Quek, G. de la Roche, I. Guvenc, and M. Kountouris, “Small Cell Networks: Deployment, PHY Techniques, and Resource Allocation,” Cambridge University Press, Jun. 2013.
This book provides a comprehensive technical overview of small cell networks

L. Ortigoza-Guerrero and A. Aghvami, “Resource Allocation in Hierarchical Cellular Systems,” Artech House, ISBN: 978-1580530668, 2000.
This book addresses the problem of channel allocation in mobile cellular networks and presents CAS for operation in universal mobile telecommunications systems formed of hierarchical cellular structures.

J. Zhang and G. de la Roche, “Femtocells: Technologies and Deployment,” ISBN: 978-0470742983, Wiley, Nov. 2009. 
The authors provide a comprehensive and organized explanation of the femtocell concepts, architecture, air interface technologies, and challenging issues arising from the deployment of femtocells.

S. Sesia, I. Toufik, and M. Baker, “LTE–The UMTS Long Term Evolution: From Theory to Practice,” published in From Theory to Practice, ISBN: 978-0470697160, Wiley, 2009.
This book offers comprehensive system-level understandings of LTE and the key features of LTE-Advanced.

L. Song and J. Shen, “Evolved Cellular Network Planning and Optimization for UMTS and LTE,” ISBN: 978-1439806494, Auerbach Publications, CRC Press, 2010. 
This book presents an accessible introduction to all stages of planning and optimizing UMTS, HSPA, and LTE cellular networks.

Z. Han, D. Niyato, W. Saad, T. Basar, and A. Hjorungnes, “Game Theory in Wireless and Communication Networks: Theory, Models and Applications,” ISBN: 978-0521196963, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2012.
This unified treatment of game theory focuses on finding state-of-the-art solutions to issues surrounding the next generation of wireless and communications networks.

W. Song and W. Zhuang, “Interworking of Wireless LANs and Cellular Networks,” Springer Briefs in Computer Science, ISBN 978-1461443797, 2012.
This book focuses on three aspects of interworking of wireless LANs and cellular Networks, namely access selection, call admission control and load sharing.

X. Chu, D. Lopez-Perez, Y. Yang, and F. Gunnarsson, “Heterogeneous Cellular Networks: Theory, Simulation and Deployment,” ISBN: 978-1107023093, Cambridge University Press, 2013.
This book provides a comprehensive coverage of design, development, and deployment of heterogeneous cellular networks. The authors strike a delicate balance among theoretical concepts, simulation performance, and practical implementation, resulting in a complete and thorough exposition of various technologies. The book is highly recommended to those interested in the emerging and future mobile communication systems.

L. Hanzo, Y. Akhtman, L. Wang, M. Jiang, "MIMO-OFDM for LTE, WiFi and WiMAX: Coherent versus Non-coherent and Cooperative Turbo Transceivers," ISBN-10: 0470686693, Wiley-IEEE, 2010 This monograph collates the latest techniques in a number of specific design areas of turbo-detected MIMO-OFDM wireless systems.


3GPP TS 25.467 V8.2.0 UTRAN Architecture for 3G Home Node B (HNB).

3GPP TS 25.469 V8.2.0 Home Node B Application Part (HNBAP) Signaling.

3GPP2 Femtocell Standard Released. 3GPP2. Retrieved 2010-12-19.

3GPP, “Mobility Procedures for Home NodeB; Overall Description Stage 2,” TS 25.367 (release 11), 2011.

R 36.921 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); FDD Home eNode B (HeNB) Radio Frequency (RF) Requirements Analysis.

TR 36.922 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); TDD Home eNode B (HeNB) Radio Frequency (RF) Requirements Analysis.

TR 36.932 Scenarios and Requirements of LTE Small Cell Enhancements

Topic: Architecture

Architectures for Heterogeneous and Multitier Wireless Networks

A. Ganz, C. M. Krishna, D. Tang, and Z. J. Haas, “On optimal design of multitier wireless cellular systems,” IEEE communications Magazine, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 88 - 93, Feb 1997.
The authors present a general cell-design methodology for the optimal design of a multitier wireless cellular network.

X. Wu, B. Murherjee, and D. Ghosal, “Hierarchical architectures in the third-generation cellular network,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 62 - 71, Jun. 2004.
This paper reviews the different design techniques in the hierarchical architecture and some analytical tools to study the performance of these designs.

I. Akyildiz, S. Mohanty, and J. Xie, “A ubiquitous mobile communication architecture for next-generation heterogeneous wireless systems,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. S29–S36, 2005.
In this article, the architecture for ubiquitous mobile communications (AMC) is introduced that integrates the heterogeneous wireless systems, e.g., Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11, UMTS, and satellite networks.

H. Dhillon, R. Ganti, F. Baccelli, and J. Andrews, “Modeling and analysis of k-tier downlink heterogeneous cellular networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 550–560, 2012.
This paper develops a tractable, flexible, and accurate model for a downlink heterogeneous cellular network consisting of K tiers of randomly located base stations. 

P. Madhusudhanan, J. Restrepo, Y. Liu, T. Brown, and K. Baker, “Multi-Tier Network Performance Analysis Using a Shotgun Cellular System,” Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM, 2011.
This paper is on the same lines as the three papers above and presents some important generalizations to the K tier model for heterogeneous cellular networks.

H. Dhillon, M. Kountouris, and J. Andrews, “Downlink MIMO HetNets: Modeling, Ordering Results and Performance Analysis,” submitted to IEEE Trans. Wireless, Jan. 2013. Available at
A recent paper proposes a general K tier model for MIMO heterogeneous cellular networks with the flexibility that each tier can adopt its own transmission strategy. Simple performance ordering results are derived for different transmission techniques, such as beamforming and spatial division multiple access.

S. Landström, A. Furuskãr, K. Johansson, L. Falconetti, and F. Kronestedt, “Heterogeneous networks–increasing cellular capacity,” The data boom: opportunities and challenges, p. 4, 2011.
This paper first proposes the concept of Het-Net and lists the important issues in research and implementation.

G. Wu, M. Mizuno, and P. Havinga, “MIRAI architecture for heterogeneous network,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 126–134, 2002.
This article describes a heterogeneous network architecture including a common tool, a common platform, and a common access. 

R. Beraldi, S. Marano, and C. Mastroianni, “A reversible hierarchical scheme for microcellular systems with overlaying macrocells,”in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 51–58, 1996. 
This paper proposes a reversible hierarchical scheme characterized by the presence of handover attempts from macrocells to microcells. 

K. Fall, S. Farrell, DTN: An architectural retrospective, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 828–836, June. 2008.
This paper reviews the rationale behind the current design of the Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) Architecture and highlights some remaining open issues.

A. Ghosh, R. Ratasuk, B. Mondal, N. Mangalvedhe, T. Thomas, LTE-advanced: Next-generation wireless broadband technology, IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 10–22, June. 2010.
In this article an overview of the techniques being considered for LTE Release 10 (aka LTE-Advanced) is discussed. 

T. Lehman, J. Sobieski, B. Jabbari, DRAGON: A framework for service provisioning in heterogeneous grid networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 84–90, March. 2006.
Dynamic resource allocation in GMPLS optical networks (DRAGON) defines a research and experimental framework for high-performance networks required by grid computing and e-science applications.

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, Y. Kokubun, Heterogeneous multi-core fibers: Proposal and design principle, IEICE Electronics Express, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 98–103, January. 2009.  
This paper proposes a new type of optical fiber called heterogeneous multi-core fiber (heterogeneous MCF) towards future large-capacity optical-transport networks and describes the design principle.

J.D. Camp, E.W. Knightly, The IEEE 802.11s extended service set mesh networking standard, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 120–126, August. 2008.
This article describes and discusses how the initial standard addresses key factors for standardization of these networks: efficient allocation of mesh resources at the routing and MAC layers; protection and conservation of the network resources via security and energy efficiency; and assurance of fairness and elimination of spatial bias via mesh congestion control.

Interworking and Mobility Management

D. Cavalcanti, D. Agrawal, C. Cordeiro, B. Xie, and A. Kumar, “Issues in integrating cellular networks WLANs, and MANETs: a futuristic heterogeneous wireless network,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 30–41, 2005.
This article envisions an architecture for state-of-the-art heterogeneous multihop networks, and identifies research issues that need to be addressed for successful integration of heterogeneous technologies for the next generation of wireless and mobile networks.

H. Wu, C. Qiao, S. De, and O. Tonguz, “Integrated cellular and ad hoc relaying systems: iCAR,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 2105–2115, 2001.
This work proposes a new wireless system architecture based on the integration of cellular and modern ad hoc relaying technologies.

K. Ahmavaara, H. Haverinen, and R. Pichna, “Interworking architecture between 3GPP and WLAN systems,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 74 – 81, Nov. 2003. 
The article presents an overall view on an interworking architecture, which enables provisioning by mobile operators of a public WLAN access service for 3GPP system subscribers.

M. Bernaschi, F. ItalyCacace, G. Iannello, S. Za, and A. Pescape, “Seamless internetworking of WLANs and cellular networks: architecture and performance issues in a Mobile IPv6 scenario,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 73 – 80, Jun. 2005.
This article reviews the problem of network mobility and internetworking between heterogeneous data networks and presents an approach to the integration of WLAN and cellular networks based on loose coupling and the use of emerging mobility protocols.

N. Shenoy and R. Montalvo, “A framework for seamless roaming across cellular and wireless local area networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 50 - 57, Jun. 2005.
This article proposes a global mobility management framework to support seamless roaming across heterogeneous wireless networks.

S. Pack, X. Shen, J.W. Mark, and J. Pan, “Mobility Management in Mobile Hotspots with Heterogeneous Multi-Hop Wireless Links,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 45, No. 9, pp. 106-112, Sept. 2007.
This article studies two representative mobility management schemes for mobile hotspots with heterogeneous multi-hop wireless links.

L. Eastwood, S. Migaldi, Q. Xie, and V. Gupta, “Mobility using IEEE 802.21 in a heterogeneous IEEE 802.16/802.11-based, IMT-advanced (4G) network,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 26–34, 2008.
Industry is defining a new generation of mobile wireless technologies, called in cellular terminology "fourth generation" or "4G." This article shows that a system combining extensions of two radio access technologies, IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.16, meets the ITU-R's "IMT-Advanced" or 4G requirements.

Q. Song, A. Jamalipour, Network selection in an integrated wireless LAN and UMTS environment using mathematical modeling and computing techniques, IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 42–48, June. 2005.
This article develops a network selection scheme for an integrated cellular/wireless LAN system. The design goal is to provide the user the best available QoS at any time.

F. Bari,V.C.M. Leung, Automated network selection in a heterogeneous wireless network environment, IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 34–40, Jan. - Feb.2007.
This article describes a comprehensive decision making process to rank candidate networks for service delivery to the terminal.

D. Niyato, E. Hossain, Dynamics of network selection in heterogeneous wireless networks: An evolutionary game approach, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 2008–2017, May. 2009.
This paper studies the dynamics of network selection in a heterogeneous wireless network using the theory of evolutionary games.

A.K.Y. Wong, P. Ray, N. Parameswaran, J. Strassner, Ontology mapping for the interoperability problem in network management, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 2058–2068, Oct. 2005.
This paper presents an ontology-driven approach for solving the semantic interoperability problem in the management of enterprise services, illustrated here with a router configuration management application.

N. Li, J.C. Hou, Localized topology control algorithms for heterogeneous wireless networks, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol.13, no. 6, pp. 1313–1324, Dec. 2005.
This paper presents two localized topology control algorithms for heterogeneous networks: Directed Relative Neighborhood Graph (DRNG) and Directed Local Spanning Subgraph (DLSS). 

Handoff, Network Selection, and Load Balancing

S. Lee, K. Sriram, K. Kim, Y. Kim, and N. Golmie, “Vertical handoff decision algorithms for providing optimized performance in heterogeneous wireless networks,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 865–881, 2009.
This paper develops a vertical handoff decision algorithm that enables a wireless access network to not only balance the overall load among all attachment points (e.g., base stations and access points) but also maximize the collective battery lifetime of mobile nodes.

M. Liu, Z. Li, X. Guo, and E. Dutkiewicz, “Performance analysis and optimization of handoff algorithms in heterogeneous wireless networks,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 846–857, 2008.
This paper presents an analytical framework to evaluate vertical handoff algorithms.

F. Bari and V. Leung, “Automated network selection in a heterogeneous wireless network environment,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 34–40, 2007.
This article describes a comprehensive decision making process to rank candidate networks for service delivery to the terminal.

Q. Ye, B. Rong, Y. Chen, M. Al-Shalash, C. Caramanis, and J. G. Andrews, "User Association for Load Balancing in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, to appear.
This paper considers load balancing across a HetNet from an optimization perspective, and shows that near-optimal load balancing can be achieved with a simple cell range expansion/biasing approach.

D. Niyato and E. Hossain, “Dynamics of network selection in heterogeneous wireless networks: an evolutionary game approach,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 2008–2017, 2009.
This paper presents two algorithms, namely, population evolution and reinforcement-learning algorithms for network selection in heterogeneous wireless networks.

T. Klein and S. Han, “Assignment strategies for mobile data users in hierarchical overlay networks: performance of optimal and adaptive strategies,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 849–861, 2004.
One of the crucial problems in hierarchical overlay networks is the assignment of wireless data users to the different layers of the overlay architecture. This paper presents a framework and several analytical results pertaining to the performance of two assignment strategies based on the user's velocity and the amount of data to be transmitted.

W. Song, W. Zhuang, and Y. Cheng, “Load balancing for cellular/WLAN integrated networks,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 27–33, 2007.
This article presents a policy framework for resource management in a loosely coupled cellular/WLAN integrated network, where load balancing policies are designed to efficiently utilize the pooled resources of the network. 

W. Song and W. Zhuang, “Multi-service load sharing for resource management in the cellular/WLAN integrated network,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 725–735, 2009.
This paper proposes a new load sharing scheme for voice and elastic data services in a cellular/WLAN integrated network. 

Q. Li, R. Hu, G. Wu, and Y. Qian, “On the optimal mobile association in heterogeneous wireless relay networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1359–1367, 2012.
This paper proposes a load-balancing based mobile association framework under both full frequency reuse and partial frequency reuse and find the pseudo-optimal solutions using gradient descent method.

S. Singh, H. S. Dhillon, and J. G. Andrews, “Offloading in heterogeneous networks: Modeling, analysis, and design insights,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communicationsto appear.
This paper provides a tractable framework to analyze offloading in a general M-RAT K-tier heterogeneous network via optimizing the derived network-wide rate distribution.

Nasser, N., Hasswa, A., Hassanein, H.,Handoffs in fourth generation heterogeneous networks, IEEECommunications Magazine, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 96–103, Oct. 2006.
This article presents different and novel aspects of handoff and discusses handoff related issues of fourth generation systems.

E. Stevens-Navarro, Y. Lin, V.W.S. Wong, An MDP-based vertical handoff decision algorithm for heterogeneous wireless networks,IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 1243–1254, March. 2008.
The objective of this paper is to determine the conditions under which vertical handoff should be performed.

G. Lampropoulos, A.K. Salkintzis, N. Passas, Media-independent handover for seamless service provision in heterogeneous networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 64–71, January 2008.
In this article, the focal point is the satisfaction of service requirements during mobility and more specifically, how the emerging IEEE 802.21 standard enables seamless, inter-technology handover.

E. Stevens-Navarro, V.W.S. Wong, Comparison between vertical handoff decision algorithms for heterogeneous wireless networks, IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, vol. 2, pp. 947–951, May. 2006.
This paper compares the performance between four vertical handoff decision algorithms, namely, MEW (multiplicative exponent weighting), SAW (simple additive weighting), TOPSIS (technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution), and GRA (grey relational analysis).

W. Wu, N. Banerjee, K. Basu, S.K. Das, SIP-based vertical handoff between WWANs and WLANs, IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 66–72, June 2005.
This paper analyzes the delay associated with vertical handoff using SIP in the WLAN-UMTS internetwork. 

C.W. Lee, L.M. Chen, M.C. Chen, Y.S. Sun, A framework of handoffs in wireless overlay networks based on mobile IPv6, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 2118–2128, Nov. 2005.
These papers presents a scheme for integrating wireless local area network and wide area access networks and proposes a micromobility management method called HiMIPv6+.

Topic: Resource Management

Scheduling, Access Control, and Resource Management

J. Luo, R. Mukerjee, M. Dillinger, E. Mohyeldin, and E. Schulz, “Investigation of radio resource scheduling in WLANs coupled with 3G cellular network,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 108–115, 2003.
A joint scheduling mechanism allowing traffic to be split over a tightly coupled radio network supported by an adaptive radio multihoming approach is deliberately discussed in the article.

V. Chandrasekhar and J. Andrews, “Spectrum allocation in tiered cellular networks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3059–3068, 2009.
This paper proposes and analyzes an optimum decentralized spectrum allocation policy for two-tier networks that employ frequency division multiple access (including OFDMA).

A. Golaup, M. Mustapha, and L. Patanapongpibul, “Femtocell access control strategy in UMTS and LTE,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 117–123, Sep. 2009.
This article focuses on the access control strategy, which is a crucial aspect for operators to give preferential access to femtocells for their subscribers. 

G. De La Roche, A. Valcarce, D. López-Pérez and J. Zhang, “Access Control Mechanisms for Femtocells,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 48, no 1, pp. 33 - 39, Jan. 2010.
In this article the existing access methods for femtocells together with their benefits and drawbacks are explained. A description of the business model and technical impact of access methods in femto/macro networks is also provided. Finally, the need for hybrid access methods and several models are presented.

Z. Feng, J. Deng, L. Song, and Z. Han, “Joint Access Control and Subchannel Allocation Scheme for OFDMA Femtocell Network Using a Truthful Mechanism” The first ACM international workshop on Practical issues and applications in next generation wireless networks (PINGEN'12), Istanbul, Turkey, August 22 - 26, 2012.
This paper considers a two-tier orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) femtocell network that contains one macrocell base station, several femtocell access points and femtocell user equipments.

P. Xia, H. Jo, and J. Andrews, “Fundamentals of inter-cell overhead signaling in heterogeneous cellular networks,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 257–269, 2012.
This paper develops a novel framework to quantify overhead signaling for inter-cell coordination, which is usually ignored in traditional 1-tier networks, and assumes even more importance in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks.

G. Song, Y. Li, Utility-based resource allocation and scheduling in OFDM-based wireless broadband networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 127–134, Dec. 2005.
This article discusses downlink resource allocation and scheduling for OFDM-based broadband wireless networks. We present a cross-layer resource management framework leveraged by utility optimization.

Y. Tian, K. Xu, N. Ansari, TCP in wireless environments: Problems and solutions, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. S27–S32, March. 2005.
Following a brief introduction to TCP, this article analyzes the problems TCP exhibits in the wireless IP communication environment, and illustrates viable solutions by detailed examples.

M. Chiani, A. Conti, and O. Andrisano, Outage evaluation for slow frequency hopping mobile radio systems, IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1865–1874, Dec. 1999.
This paper investigates the capacity of a SFH mobile radio system, with reference to both the uplink and downlink, by taking into account a complete scenario, i.e., shadowing, fast fading, power control, antenna diversity, discontinuous transmission, and forward error correction with nonideal interleaving and sectorization.

B. Jennings, S. van der Meer, S. Balasubramaniam, D. Botvich, M.Ó. FoghlÙ, W. Donnelly, J. Strassner, Towards autonomic management of communications networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 112–121, Oct. 2007.
This article provides an introduction to the FOCALE autonomic network management architecture, which is designed to address these challenges.

M.J. Neely, E. Modiano, C.-P. Li, Fairness and optimal stochastic control for heterogeneous networks, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 396–409, April. 2008.
This paper considers optimal control for general networks with both wireless and wireline components and time varying channels.

O. Sinnen, L.A. Sousa, Communication contention in task scheduling, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 16, pp. 503–515, June. 2005.
This paper investigates the incorporation of contention awareness into task scheduling. A new system model for task scheduling is proposed, allowing to capture both end-point and network contention. 

H. Wu, F. Yang, K. Tan, J. Chen, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Distributed channel assignment and routing in multiradio multichannel multihop wireless networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1972–1983, Nov. 2006.
This paper propose a novel software solution, called Layer 2.5 JCAR, which jointly coordinates the channel selection on each wireless interface and the route selection among interfaces based on the traffic information measured and exchanged among the two-hop neighbors.

D. Niyato, E. Hossain, A noncooperative game-theoretic framework for radio resource management in 4G heterogeneous wireless access networks, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 332–345, March. 2008.
This paper presents a game-theoretic framework for radio resource management (that is, bandwidth allocation and admission control) in a heterogeneous wireless access environment.

M. Mazzotti, S. Moretti, and M. Chiani, Multiuser resource allocation with adaptive modulation and LDPC coding for heterogeneous traffic in OFDMA downlink, IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 2915–2925, october 2012.
This paper describes an optimization technique for multiuser resource allocation assuming adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) in OFDMA radio downlink communications.

K. Chebrolu, R.R. Rao, Bandwidth aggregation for real-time applications in heterogeneous wireless networks, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 388–403, April. 2006.
This paper motivates the advantages that can be had through simultaneous use of multiple interfaces and present a network layer architecture that enables diverse multiaccess services.

L. Giupponi, R.  Agustí,   J. Pérez-Romero, O. Sallent Roig, A novel approach for joint radio resource management based on fuzzy neural methodology, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1789–1805, May. 2008.
This paper introduces an innovative mechanism to perform joint radio resource management (JRRM) in the context of heterogeneous radio access networks.

Power Control, Interference Management, and Energy Efficiency

O. Arnold, F. Richter, G. Fettweis, and O. Blume, “Power consumption modeling of different base station types in heterogeneous cellular networks,” 2010 Future Network and Mobile Summit, pp. 1 - 8, 16-18 Jun. 2010.
This paper develops power models for macro and micro base stations relying on data sheets of several GSM and UMTS base stations with focus on component level, e.g., power amplifier and cooling equipment.

V. Chandrasekhar, M. Kountouris, and J.G. Andrews, “Coverage in multi-antenna two-tier networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 5314 - 5327, Oct. 2009.
This paper derives the maximum number of simultaneously transmitting multiple antenna femtocells meeting a per-tier outage probability constraint. Coverage dead zones are presented wherein cross-tier interference bottlenecks cellular and femtocell coverage.

V. Chandrasekhar, J. Andrews, T. Muharemovic, Z. Shen, and A. Gatherer, “Power control in two-tier femtocell networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 4316–4328, 2009.
This paper provides a link budget analysis which enables simple and accurate performance insights in a two-tier cellular network.

M. Chiani, A. Conti, and R. Verdone, Partial compensation signal-level-based up-link power control to extend terminal battery duration, IEEE Transactions on VehicularTechnology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 1125–1131, Jul. 2001.
This work is concerned with partial (including the full and half cases) compensation signal-level-based PC algorithms and their impact on battery duration of mobile terminals, i.e., the uplink is investigated.

MZ. Win, PC. Pinto, LA. Shepp, A mathematical theory of network interference and its applications, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 205–230, Feb. 2009.
This paper introduces a mathematical framework for the characterization of network interference in wireless systems.

M. Yavuz, F. Meshkati, S. Nanda, A. Pokhariyal, N. Johnson, B. Raghothaman, and A. Richardson, “Interference management and performance analysis of UMTS/HSPA+ femtocells,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 102–109, 2009.
The article presents interference management techniques for both downlink and uplink of femtocells operating based on 3GPP Release 7 standards (also known as HSPA+).

S. Mukherjee, “Distribution of downlink SINR in heterogeneous cellular networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 575–585, 2012.
This paper examines the downlink of a heterogeneous cellular network made up of multiple tiers of transmitters and provides a general theoretical analysis of the distribution of the SINR at an arbitrarily-located user.

P. Pinto, A. Giorgetti, M. Z. Win, and M. Chiani, A stochastic geometry approach to coexistence in heterogeneous wireless networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1268–1282, Sep. 2009.
This paper puts forth a mathematical model for coexistence in networks composed of both narrowband (NB) and ultrawideband (UWB) wireless nodes, based on fundamental tools from stochastic geometry.

D. López-Pérez, A. Valcarce, G. De La Roche, and J. Zhang, “OFDMA femtocells: A roadmap on interference avoidance,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 41–48, 2009.
In this article a coverage and interference analysis based on a realistic OFDMA macro/femtocell scenario is provided, as well as some guidelines on how the spectrum allocation and interference mitigation problems can be approached in these networks.

V. Chandrasekhar and J. Andrews, “Uplink capacity and interference avoidance for two-tier femtocell networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 3498–3509, 2009.
This paper develops an uplink capacity analysis and interference avoidance strategy in a two-tier CDMA network.

R. Madan, J. Borran, A. Sampath, N. Bhushan, A. Khandekar, and T. Ji, “Cell association and interference coordination in heterogeneous LTE-A cellular networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1479–1489, 2010.
This paper describes new paradigms for design and operation of such heterogeneous cellular networks.

J. Yun and K.G. Shin, "Adaptive Interference Management of OFDMA Femtocells for Co-Channel Deployment", IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 29, no. 6, pp.1225-1241, June 2011.
This paper proposes a distributed and self-organizing femtocell management architecture to mitigate the uplink interference. 

F. Richter, A. Fehske, and G. Fettweis, “Energy efficiency aspects of base station deployment strategies for cellular networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Fall (VTC 2009-Fall), pp. 1–5, 2009.
This paper investigates on the impact of deployment strategies on the power consumption of mobile radio networks, considering layouts featuring varying numbers of micro base stations per cell in addition to conventional macro sites.

X. Lin, J. Andrews and A. Ghosh, “Modeling, Analysis and Design for Carrier Aggregation in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks”, submitted to IEEE Trans. Wireless, Nov. 2012. Available at
This paper considers deploying multiple separated bands across possibly multiple classes of bases stations in an OFDMA network.

M. Chiani and A. Giorgetti, Coexistence between UWB and narrow-band wireless communication systems, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 231–254, Feb. 2009.
This paper aims to present recent results on the interference and coexistence among UWB systems and other conventional narrow-band (NB) systems.

Macrodiversity and Performance Evaluation

M. Sharif, B. Hassibi, On the capacity of MIMO broadcast channels with partial side information, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 506-522, Feb. 2005
This paper proposes a scheme that constructs M random beams and that transmits information to the users with the highest signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratios (SINRs), which can be made available to the transmitter with very little feedback.

C. Gkantsidis, P.R. Rodriguez, Network coding for large scale content distribution, Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 4, pp. 2235–2245, March 2005.
This paper proposes a new scheme for content distribution of large files that is based on network coding.

D. Malone, K. Duffy, D. Leith, Modeling the 802.11 distributed coordination function in nonsaturated heterogeneous conditions, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 159–172, Feb. 2007.
This paper presents an extension of Bianchi's model to a nonsaturated environment.

H.M.F. AboElFotoh, S.S. Iyengar, K. Chakrabarty, Computing reliability and message delay for cooperative wireless distributed sensor networks subject to random failures, IEEE Transactions on Reliability, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 145–155, March. 2005.
This paper focuses on two related problems: computing a measure for the reliability of distributed sensor networks (DSN), and computing a measure for the expected & the maximum message delay between data sources (sensors) & data sinks in an operational DSN.

N.M. Mosharaf, K. Chowdhury, M.R. Rahman, R. Boutaba, Virtual network embedding with coordinated node and link mapping, Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 783–791, 2009.
This paper proposes virtual network embedding algorithms with better coordination between the two phases. 

A. Conti, W. M. Gifford, M. Z. Win, and M. Chiani, Optimized simple bounds for diversity systems, IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2674–2685, Sep. 2009
This paper proposes a simple class of bounds, whose parameters are optimized, on the symbol error probability (SEP) for detection of arbitrary two-dimensional signaling constellations with diversity in the presence of non-ideal channel estimation.

D. Gesbert, S. Hanly, H. Huang, S. Shamai, O. Simeone, W. Yu, “Multi-cell MIMO cooperative networks: A new look at interference,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1380-1408, Dec. 2010.
This paper presents an overview of the theory and currently known techniques for multi-cell MIMO (multiple input multiple output) cooperation in wireless networks.

R. Zakhour, D. Gesbert, “Optimized data sharing in multicell MIMO with finite backhaul capacity,” in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 6102-6111, Dec. 2011.
This paper addresses cooperation in a multicell environment where base stations (BSs) wish to jointly serve multiple users, under a constrained-capacity backhaul.

Topic: Some Application Scenarios

Device-to-Device Communications

K. Doppler, M. Rinne, C. Wijting, C. Ribeiro, and K. Hugl, “Device-to-device communication as an underlay to LTE-advanced networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 42-49, Dec. 2009.
In this article device-to-device (D2D) communication underlaying a 3GPP LTE-Advanced cellular network is studied as an enabler of local services with limited interference impact on the primary cellular network.

C.-H. Yu, K. Doppler, C. Ribeiro, and O. Tirkkonen, “Resource sharing optimization for D2D communication underlaying cellular networks,” IEEE Transactions Wireless Communications, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 2752-2763, Aug. 2011.
This paper considers Device-to-Device (D2D) communication underlaying cellular networks to improve local services, with the objective of optimizing the throughput over the shared resources while fulfilling prioritized cellular service constraints.

L. Lei, Z. Zhong, C. Lin, and X. Shen, “Operator controlled device-to-device communications in LTE-advanced networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 19, no. 3 , pp. 96-104, June 2012.
This article studies direct communications between user equipments in the LTE-advanced cellular networks. Different from traditional device-to-device communication technologies such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi-direct, the operator controls the communication process to provide better user experience and make profit accordingly.

C. Xu, L. Song, Z. Han, Q. Zhao, X. Wang, and B. Jiao, “Efficient Resource Allocation for Device-to-Device Underlaying Networks using Combinatorial Auction”, to appear, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special Issue on “Peer-to-Peer Networks”, Available at
This paper introduces a reverse iterative combinatorial auction as the allocation mechanism to optimize the system sum rate over the resource sharing of both D2D and cellular modes.

Smart Grids

A. Zaballos, A. Vallejo, and J. M. Selga, “Heterogeneous communication architecture for the smart grid,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 30-37, Sept.-Oct. 2011.
This article is focused on proposing a heterogeneous communication paradigm for smart grids based on power line communications and wireless networks.

H. Liang, B. J. Choi, A. Abdrabou, W. Zhuang, and X. Shen, “Decentralized economic dispatch in microgrids via heterogeneous wireless networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1061-1074, Jul. 2012.
This paper presents a heterogeneous wireless network architecture for microgrids to avoid a slow convergence speed which potentially increases the generation cost because of the time-varying nature of distributed generation output.

M. Levorato and U. Mitra, “Optimal allocation of heterogeneous smart grid traffic to heterogeneous networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE SmartGridComm’11, pp.132-137, Oct. 2011.
An intelligent combination of wired networks (the Internet), wireless networks and power line communication networks can be used to deliver control and application messages generated by the smart grid. This paper presents an algorithm which dynamically allocates traffic with different QoS requirements.

M. Chiani, A. Giorgetti, S. Minardi, E. Paolini, and M. Taormina, “Heterogeneous wireless/power line communication networks for energy metering and control,” in Proceedings of IEEE MIPRO’11, pp.624-628, May 2011.
This paper describes a heterogeneous network composed by wireless links and a power line communication (PLC) infrastructure, using the public lighting system. 

M. Castillo-Cagigal, E. Matallanas,  A. Gutierrez, F. Monasterio-Huelin, E. Caamano-Martín, D. Masa-Bote, and J. Jimenez-Leube, “Heterogeneous collaborative sensor network for electrical management of an automated house with PV energy,” Sensors, vol. 11, no. 12, 11544-11559, 2011.
This paper presents a heterogeneous collaborative sensor network for electrical management in the residential sector.

Wireless Sensor Networks

V.P. Mhatre, C. Rosenberg, D. Kofman, R. Mazumdar, N. Shroff, A minimum cost heterogeneous sensor network with a lifetime constraint, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 4–15, 2005.
This paper considers a heterogeneous sensor network in which nodes are to be deployed over a unit area for the purpose of surveillance.

M. Yarvis, N. Kushalnagar, H. Singh, A. Rangarajan, Y. Liu,S. Singh, Exploiting heterogeneity in sensor networks, Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 2, pp. 878–890, March 2005.
This paper focuses on energy and link heterogeneity in ad hoc sensor networks and considers resource-aware MAC and routing protocols to utilize those resources.

L. Qing, Q. Zhu, M. Wang, Design of a distributed energy-efficient clustering algorithm for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, Computer Communications, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 2230–2237, August. 2006.
This paper proposes and evaluates a new distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, which is called DEEC. In DEEC, the cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of each node and the average energy of the network.

D. Dardari, A. Conti, C. Buratti, and R. Verdone, “Mathematical evaluation of environmental monitoring estimation error through energy-efficient wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing., vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 790–802, Jul 2007.
This paper investigates the estimation of a scalar field over a bidimensional scenario (e.g., the atmospheric pressure in a wide area) through a self-organizing wireless sensor network (WSN) with energy constraints.

Y. Wang, X. Wang, B. Xie, D. Wang, D.P. Agrawal, Intrusion detection in homogeneous and heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 698–711, June. 2008.
This paper considers this issue of characterizing the WSN parameters according to two WSN models: homogeneous and heterogeneous WSN.

J. Li, G. AlRegib, Rate-constrained distributed estimation in wireless sensor networks, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1634–1643, May 2007. 
This paper considers the distributed parameter estimation in wireless sensor networks where a total bit rate constraint is imposed.

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